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Sex differences in behavioral outcomes following temperature modulation during induced neonatal hypoxic ischemic injury in rats.

Smith AL, Garbus H, Rosenkrantz TS, Fitch RH - Brain Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats.Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks.However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Unit 1020, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. amanda.l.smith@uconn.edu.

ABSTRACT
Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain) can cause various degrees of tissue damage, as well as subsequent cognitive/behavioral deficits such as motor, learning/memory, and auditory impairments. These outcomes frequently result from cardiovascular and/or respiratory events observed in premature infants. Data suggests that there is a sex difference in HI outcome, with males being more adversely affected relative to comparably injured females. Brain/body temperature may play a role in modulating the severity of an HI insult, with hypothermia during an insult yielding more favorable anatomical and behavioral outcomes. The current study utilized a postnatal day (P) 7 rodent model of HI injury to assess the effect of temperature modulation during injury in each sex. We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats. We assessed all subjects on rota-rod, auditory discrimination, and spatial/non-spatial maze tasks. Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks. However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks. Our data suggest that temperature reduction protects both sexes from the deleterious effects of HI injury, but task and sex specific patterns of relative efficacy are seen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) A 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant overall differences between Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed both HI normothermic animals and HI hypothermic animals performed significantly worse than shams (p < 0.05, p = 0.05, respectively); (b) A 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant overall differences between Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed similar performances between HI hypothermic animals and shams (p > 0.05), but HI normothermic animals performed significantly worse than shams (p < 0.05).
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brainsci-05-00220-f002: (a) A 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant overall differences between Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed both HI normothermic animals and HI hypothermic animals performed significantly worse than shams (p < 0.05, p = 0.05, respectively); (b) A 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant overall differences between Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed similar performances between HI hypothermic animals and shams (p > 0.05), but HI normothermic animals performed significantly worse than shams (p < 0.05).

Mentions: An overall 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 2 (Sex) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed an effect of Treatment, indicating different performance between groups (F(2, 56) = 10.522, p < 0.001). Based on a priori hypotheses, we performed additional 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVAs for each sex separately, to assess whether hypothermia had a similar effect in each sex. For females, this analysis revealed a significant Treatment effect (F(2, 28) = 4.740, p < 0.05), and a Tukey post hoc test revealed significant differences between female HI normothermic animals and female shams (p < 0.05; shams better), as well as differences between female HI hypothermic animals and shams (indicating both HI groups, regardless of temperature, performed significantly worse than shams on a silent gap detection task; see Figure 2a). For males, a 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed an overall effect of Treatment (F(2, 28) = 4.241, p < 0.05), and a Tukey post hoc test only revealed a significant difference between male HI normothermic animals and male shams. This result indicates that HI normothermic animals performed worse than shams, while HI hypothermic animals performed comparably to shams (confirming the beneficial effect of lower body temperatures on behavior (p < 0.05; see Figure 2b)).


Sex differences in behavioral outcomes following temperature modulation during induced neonatal hypoxic ischemic injury in rats.

Smith AL, Garbus H, Rosenkrantz TS, Fitch RH - Brain Sci (2015)

(a) A 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant overall differences between Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed both HI normothermic animals and HI hypothermic animals performed significantly worse than shams (p < 0.05, p = 0.05, respectively); (b) A 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant overall differences between Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed similar performances between HI hypothermic animals and shams (p > 0.05), but HI normothermic animals performed significantly worse than shams (p < 0.05).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493466&req=5

brainsci-05-00220-f002: (a) A 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant overall differences between Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed both HI normothermic animals and HI hypothermic animals performed significantly worse than shams (p < 0.05, p = 0.05, respectively); (b) A 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant overall differences between Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed similar performances between HI hypothermic animals and shams (p > 0.05), but HI normothermic animals performed significantly worse than shams (p < 0.05).
Mentions: An overall 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 2 (Sex) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed an effect of Treatment, indicating different performance between groups (F(2, 56) = 10.522, p < 0.001). Based on a priori hypotheses, we performed additional 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVAs for each sex separately, to assess whether hypothermia had a similar effect in each sex. For females, this analysis revealed a significant Treatment effect (F(2, 28) = 4.740, p < 0.05), and a Tukey post hoc test revealed significant differences between female HI normothermic animals and female shams (p < 0.05; shams better), as well as differences between female HI hypothermic animals and shams (indicating both HI groups, regardless of temperature, performed significantly worse than shams on a silent gap detection task; see Figure 2a). For males, a 5 (Day) × 9 (Gap) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed an overall effect of Treatment (F(2, 28) = 4.241, p < 0.05), and a Tukey post hoc test only revealed a significant difference between male HI normothermic animals and male shams. This result indicates that HI normothermic animals performed worse than shams, while HI hypothermic animals performed comparably to shams (confirming the beneficial effect of lower body temperatures on behavior (p < 0.05; see Figure 2b)).

Bottom Line: We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats.Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks.However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Unit 1020, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. amanda.l.smith@uconn.edu.

ABSTRACT
Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain) can cause various degrees of tissue damage, as well as subsequent cognitive/behavioral deficits such as motor, learning/memory, and auditory impairments. These outcomes frequently result from cardiovascular and/or respiratory events observed in premature infants. Data suggests that there is a sex difference in HI outcome, with males being more adversely affected relative to comparably injured females. Brain/body temperature may play a role in modulating the severity of an HI insult, with hypothermia during an insult yielding more favorable anatomical and behavioral outcomes. The current study utilized a postnatal day (P) 7 rodent model of HI injury to assess the effect of temperature modulation during injury in each sex. We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats. We assessed all subjects on rota-rod, auditory discrimination, and spatial/non-spatial maze tasks. Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks. However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks. Our data suggest that temperature reduction protects both sexes from the deleterious effects of HI injury, but task and sex specific patterns of relative efficacy are seen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus