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Sex differences in behavioral outcomes following temperature modulation during induced neonatal hypoxic ischemic injury in rats.

Smith AL, Garbus H, Rosenkrantz TS, Fitch RH - Brain Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats.Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks.However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Unit 1020, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. amanda.l.smith@uconn.edu.

ABSTRACT
Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain) can cause various degrees of tissue damage, as well as subsequent cognitive/behavioral deficits such as motor, learning/memory, and auditory impairments. These outcomes frequently result from cardiovascular and/or respiratory events observed in premature infants. Data suggests that there is a sex difference in HI outcome, with males being more adversely affected relative to comparably injured females. Brain/body temperature may play a role in modulating the severity of an HI insult, with hypothermia during an insult yielding more favorable anatomical and behavioral outcomes. The current study utilized a postnatal day (P) 7 rodent model of HI injury to assess the effect of temperature modulation during injury in each sex. We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats. We assessed all subjects on rota-rod, auditory discrimination, and spatial/non-spatial maze tasks. Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks. However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks. Our data suggest that temperature reduction protects both sexes from the deleterious effects of HI injury, but task and sex specific patterns of relative efficacy are seen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) A 3 (Day) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significantly different performances between female Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed significantly better performance by female hypothermic animals compared to female HI normothermic animals (p < 0.05); (b) A 3 (Day) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal any significant difference in performances for male Treatment groups, nor did further Tukey post hoc analyses.
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brainsci-05-00220-f001: (a) A 3 (Day) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significantly different performances between female Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed significantly better performance by female hypothermic animals compared to female HI normothermic animals (p < 0.05); (b) A 3 (Day) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal any significant difference in performances for male Treatment groups, nor did further Tukey post hoc analyses.

Mentions: A 3 (Day) × 2 (Sex) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed an overall Treatment effect (F(2, 56) = 5.067, p < 0.05), indicating differences in performance between all Treatment groups. Based on a priori hypotheses, we performed 3 (Day) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVAs within each sex separately. For females, this analysis revealed a significant overall Treatment effect (F(2, 28) = 4.484, p < 0.05), with a Tukey post hoc test revealing significant differences between female HI normothermic animals and hypothermic animals (p < 0.05; better performance in female hypothermic HI animals, confirming the protective effect of hypothermia; see Figure 1a). For males, a similar repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test did not reveal any significant effects, indicating hypothermia did not benefit HI males on rota-rod performance (see Figure 1b).


Sex differences in behavioral outcomes following temperature modulation during induced neonatal hypoxic ischemic injury in rats.

Smith AL, Garbus H, Rosenkrantz TS, Fitch RH - Brain Sci (2015)

(a) A 3 (Day) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significantly different performances between female Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed significantly better performance by female hypothermic animals compared to female HI normothermic animals (p < 0.05); (b) A 3 (Day) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal any significant difference in performances for male Treatment groups, nor did further Tukey post hoc analyses.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493466&req=5

brainsci-05-00220-f001: (a) A 3 (Day) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significantly different performances between female Treatment groups (p < 0.05). Further Tukey post hoc analyses revealed significantly better performance by female hypothermic animals compared to female HI normothermic animals (p < 0.05); (b) A 3 (Day) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal any significant difference in performances for male Treatment groups, nor did further Tukey post hoc analyses.
Mentions: A 3 (Day) × 2 (Sex) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVA revealed an overall Treatment effect (F(2, 56) = 5.067, p < 0.05), indicating differences in performance between all Treatment groups. Based on a priori hypotheses, we performed 3 (Day) × 3 (Treatment) repeated measures ANOVAs within each sex separately. For females, this analysis revealed a significant overall Treatment effect (F(2, 28) = 4.484, p < 0.05), with a Tukey post hoc test revealing significant differences between female HI normothermic animals and hypothermic animals (p < 0.05; better performance in female hypothermic HI animals, confirming the protective effect of hypothermia; see Figure 1a). For males, a similar repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test did not reveal any significant effects, indicating hypothermia did not benefit HI males on rota-rod performance (see Figure 1b).

Bottom Line: We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats.Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks.However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Unit 1020, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. amanda.l.smith@uconn.edu.

ABSTRACT
Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain) can cause various degrees of tissue damage, as well as subsequent cognitive/behavioral deficits such as motor, learning/memory, and auditory impairments. These outcomes frequently result from cardiovascular and/or respiratory events observed in premature infants. Data suggests that there is a sex difference in HI outcome, with males being more adversely affected relative to comparably injured females. Brain/body temperature may play a role in modulating the severity of an HI insult, with hypothermia during an insult yielding more favorable anatomical and behavioral outcomes. The current study utilized a postnatal day (P) 7 rodent model of HI injury to assess the effect of temperature modulation during injury in each sex. We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats. We assessed all subjects on rota-rod, auditory discrimination, and spatial/non-spatial maze tasks. Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks. However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks. Our data suggest that temperature reduction protects both sexes from the deleterious effects of HI injury, but task and sex specific patterns of relative efficacy are seen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus