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Recent advances in elucidating the genetic mechanisms of nephrogenesis using zebrafish.

Cheng CN, Verdun VA, Wingert RA - Cells (2015)

Bottom Line: There is a limited understanding of the genetic mechanisms that establish these discrete nephron cell types during renal development.The zebrafish embryonic kidney serves as a simplified yet conserved vertebrate model to delineate how nephron segments are patterned from renal progenitors.Here, we provide a concise review of recent advances in this emerging field, and discuss how continued research using zebrafish genetics can be applied to gain insights about nephrogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Zebrafish Research, and Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. ccheng2@nd.edu.

ABSTRACT
The kidney is comprised of working units known as nephrons, which are epithelial tubules that contain a series of specialized cell types organized into a precise pattern of functionally distinct segment domains. There is a limited understanding of the genetic mechanisms that establish these discrete nephron cell types during renal development. The zebrafish embryonic kidney serves as a simplified yet conserved vertebrate model to delineate how nephron segments are patterned from renal progenitors. Here, we provide a concise review of recent advances in this emerging field, and discuss how continued research using zebrafish genetics can be applied to gain insights about nephrogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anatomy of the zebrafish pronephros. (A) The zebrafish pronephros develops from bilateral fields of renal progenitors (purple) that emerge from the intermediate mesoderm (IM) and are located lateral to the paraxial mesoderm (PM, red) that gives rise to the somites (denoted by their number along the embryo axis respective to each nephron segment in panel B); (B) At 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), the two nephrons have formed and consist of a series of segments that include: podocytes (P, light green) that contribute to the blood filter, neck (N, dark green), proximal convoluted tubule (PCT, orange), proximal straight tubule (PST, yellow), distal early (DE, sky blue), corpuscles of Stannius (CS, red), distal late (DL, dark blue), and pronephric duct (PD, black). The numbers indicate the position of each nephron segment with respect to the somites. [Figure adapted from [45], through terms of the Creative Commons License of the Authors].
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cells-04-00218-f001: Anatomy of the zebrafish pronephros. (A) The zebrafish pronephros develops from bilateral fields of renal progenitors (purple) that emerge from the intermediate mesoderm (IM) and are located lateral to the paraxial mesoderm (PM, red) that gives rise to the somites (denoted by their number along the embryo axis respective to each nephron segment in panel B); (B) At 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), the two nephrons have formed and consist of a series of segments that include: podocytes (P, light green) that contribute to the blood filter, neck (N, dark green), proximal convoluted tubule (PCT, orange), proximal straight tubule (PST, yellow), distal early (DE, sky blue), corpuscles of Stannius (CS, red), distal late (DL, dark blue), and pronephric duct (PD, black). The numbers indicate the position of each nephron segment with respect to the somites. [Figure adapted from [45], through terms of the Creative Commons License of the Authors].

Mentions: Among vertebrate model organisms, the pronephros of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, is particularly advantageous due to the embryonic transparency and rapid external development [28], as well as the wealth and versatility of genetic, cellular, and physiological manipulations that can be performed [29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39]. Specifically, the zebrafish pronephros consists of only two linear nephrons that are adjoined proximally by a blood filtering glomerulus and distally by the cloaca [40] (Figure 1). The glomerulus is structurally analogous to the typical filter apparatus in vertebrates, being comprised of capillaries that are surrounded by podocytes, which are specialized renal epithelial cells that help to comprise a sieve through which filtrate is collected [40,41,42,43]. Moreover, a series of proximal and distal tubule segments are present within the zebrafish pronephric nephrons [41,42], thus providing a simplified yet genetically tractable model system for investigating a wide array of renal developmental processes (recently reviewed in [43,44]) (Figure 1).


Recent advances in elucidating the genetic mechanisms of nephrogenesis using zebrafish.

Cheng CN, Verdun VA, Wingert RA - Cells (2015)

Anatomy of the zebrafish pronephros. (A) The zebrafish pronephros develops from bilateral fields of renal progenitors (purple) that emerge from the intermediate mesoderm (IM) and are located lateral to the paraxial mesoderm (PM, red) that gives rise to the somites (denoted by their number along the embryo axis respective to each nephron segment in panel B); (B) At 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), the two nephrons have formed and consist of a series of segments that include: podocytes (P, light green) that contribute to the blood filter, neck (N, dark green), proximal convoluted tubule (PCT, orange), proximal straight tubule (PST, yellow), distal early (DE, sky blue), corpuscles of Stannius (CS, red), distal late (DL, dark blue), and pronephric duct (PD, black). The numbers indicate the position of each nephron segment with respect to the somites. [Figure adapted from [45], through terms of the Creative Commons License of the Authors].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493457&req=5

cells-04-00218-f001: Anatomy of the zebrafish pronephros. (A) The zebrafish pronephros develops from bilateral fields of renal progenitors (purple) that emerge from the intermediate mesoderm (IM) and are located lateral to the paraxial mesoderm (PM, red) that gives rise to the somites (denoted by their number along the embryo axis respective to each nephron segment in panel B); (B) At 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), the two nephrons have formed and consist of a series of segments that include: podocytes (P, light green) that contribute to the blood filter, neck (N, dark green), proximal convoluted tubule (PCT, orange), proximal straight tubule (PST, yellow), distal early (DE, sky blue), corpuscles of Stannius (CS, red), distal late (DL, dark blue), and pronephric duct (PD, black). The numbers indicate the position of each nephron segment with respect to the somites. [Figure adapted from [45], through terms of the Creative Commons License of the Authors].
Mentions: Among vertebrate model organisms, the pronephros of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, is particularly advantageous due to the embryonic transparency and rapid external development [28], as well as the wealth and versatility of genetic, cellular, and physiological manipulations that can be performed [29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39]. Specifically, the zebrafish pronephros consists of only two linear nephrons that are adjoined proximally by a blood filtering glomerulus and distally by the cloaca [40] (Figure 1). The glomerulus is structurally analogous to the typical filter apparatus in vertebrates, being comprised of capillaries that are surrounded by podocytes, which are specialized renal epithelial cells that help to comprise a sieve through which filtrate is collected [40,41,42,43]. Moreover, a series of proximal and distal tubule segments are present within the zebrafish pronephric nephrons [41,42], thus providing a simplified yet genetically tractable model system for investigating a wide array of renal developmental processes (recently reviewed in [43,44]) (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: There is a limited understanding of the genetic mechanisms that establish these discrete nephron cell types during renal development.The zebrafish embryonic kidney serves as a simplified yet conserved vertebrate model to delineate how nephron segments are patterned from renal progenitors.Here, we provide a concise review of recent advances in this emerging field, and discuss how continued research using zebrafish genetics can be applied to gain insights about nephrogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Zebrafish Research, and Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. ccheng2@nd.edu.

ABSTRACT
The kidney is comprised of working units known as nephrons, which are epithelial tubules that contain a series of specialized cell types organized into a precise pattern of functionally distinct segment domains. There is a limited understanding of the genetic mechanisms that establish these discrete nephron cell types during renal development. The zebrafish embryonic kidney serves as a simplified yet conserved vertebrate model to delineate how nephron segments are patterned from renal progenitors. Here, we provide a concise review of recent advances in this emerging field, and discuss how continued research using zebrafish genetics can be applied to gain insights about nephrogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus