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Signaling during Kidney Development.

Krause M, Rak-Raszewska A, Pietilä I, Quaggin SE, Vainio S - Cells (2015)

Bottom Line: The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework.Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis.As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Biocenter Oulu, Oulu University, 90014 Oulu, Finland. mirja.krause@oulu.fi.

ABSTRACT
The kidney plays an essential role during excretion of metabolic waste products, maintenance of key homeostasis components such as ion concentrations and hormone levels. It influences the blood pressure, composition and volume. The kidney tubule system is composed of two distinct cell populations: the nephrons forming the filtering units and the collecting duct system derived from the ureteric bud. Nephrons are composed of glomeruli that filter the blood to the Bowman's capsule and tubular structures that reabsorb and concentrate primary urine. The collecting duct is a Wolffian duct-derived epithelial tube that concentrates and collects urine and transfers it via the renal pelvis into the bladder. The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework. Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis. As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies. This review focuses on how the pattern of renal development is generated, how the inductive signals are regulated and what are their effects on proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Kidney development stages. Top left: Stem/progenitor cells in the UB interact with the adjacent cap mesenchyme (CM) to form pre-tubular aggregates (PTA) just beneath the tip of the UB and differentiate into the renal vesicle (RV) (top right). Newly formed RVs undergo polarization and elongation to form Comma- (bottom left) and S-shaped (bottom right) bodies; the latter fuse with the UB tip epithelium to form the nephron.
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cells-04-00112-f003: Kidney development stages. Top left: Stem/progenitor cells in the UB interact with the adjacent cap mesenchyme (CM) to form pre-tubular aggregates (PTA) just beneath the tip of the UB and differentiate into the renal vesicle (RV) (top right). Newly formed RVs undergo polarization and elongation to form Comma- (bottom left) and S-shaped (bottom right) bodies; the latter fuse with the UB tip epithelium to form the nephron.

Mentions: After the primary UB budding and the subsequent invasion of the MM the UB undergoes several generations of repeated branching, as described earlier. This process is then followed by a period of reduced branching concerted with the elongation of the CD eventually leading to the formation of the collecting system. Ureter derived signals induce nephron development, initiating mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Stem/progenitor cells within the ureteric bud epithelium interact with the adjacent cap mesenchyme (CM) [10] through GDNF and FGF signals secreted by the CM [104]. Cells begin to form pre-tubular aggregates (PTA) just beneath the tip of the UB. MM cells outside the tip area and towards the cortex remain undifferentiated. Wnt9b is secreted from the UB epithelium and induces CM progenitors to differentiate into epithelial renal vesicle (RV) cells [22]. Newly formed RVs undergo polarization and elongation to form Comma- and S-shape bodies; the latter fuse with the UB tip epithelium and form the nephron (Figure 3) [105]. A segmentation into specialized glomerular podocytes, the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron takes place [45]. Signaling in nephron progenitor cells and nephrogenesis will be discussed in more detail below.


Signaling during Kidney Development.

Krause M, Rak-Raszewska A, Pietilä I, Quaggin SE, Vainio S - Cells (2015)

Kidney development stages. Top left: Stem/progenitor cells in the UB interact with the adjacent cap mesenchyme (CM) to form pre-tubular aggregates (PTA) just beneath the tip of the UB and differentiate into the renal vesicle (RV) (top right). Newly formed RVs undergo polarization and elongation to form Comma- (bottom left) and S-shaped (bottom right) bodies; the latter fuse with the UB tip epithelium to form the nephron.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493451&req=5

cells-04-00112-f003: Kidney development stages. Top left: Stem/progenitor cells in the UB interact with the adjacent cap mesenchyme (CM) to form pre-tubular aggregates (PTA) just beneath the tip of the UB and differentiate into the renal vesicle (RV) (top right). Newly formed RVs undergo polarization and elongation to form Comma- (bottom left) and S-shaped (bottom right) bodies; the latter fuse with the UB tip epithelium to form the nephron.
Mentions: After the primary UB budding and the subsequent invasion of the MM the UB undergoes several generations of repeated branching, as described earlier. This process is then followed by a period of reduced branching concerted with the elongation of the CD eventually leading to the formation of the collecting system. Ureter derived signals induce nephron development, initiating mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Stem/progenitor cells within the ureteric bud epithelium interact with the adjacent cap mesenchyme (CM) [10] through GDNF and FGF signals secreted by the CM [104]. Cells begin to form pre-tubular aggregates (PTA) just beneath the tip of the UB. MM cells outside the tip area and towards the cortex remain undifferentiated. Wnt9b is secreted from the UB epithelium and induces CM progenitors to differentiate into epithelial renal vesicle (RV) cells [22]. Newly formed RVs undergo polarization and elongation to form Comma- and S-shape bodies; the latter fuse with the UB tip epithelium and form the nephron (Figure 3) [105]. A segmentation into specialized glomerular podocytes, the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron takes place [45]. Signaling in nephron progenitor cells and nephrogenesis will be discussed in more detail below.

Bottom Line: The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework.Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis.As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Biocenter Oulu, Oulu University, 90014 Oulu, Finland. mirja.krause@oulu.fi.

ABSTRACT
The kidney plays an essential role during excretion of metabolic waste products, maintenance of key homeostasis components such as ion concentrations and hormone levels. It influences the blood pressure, composition and volume. The kidney tubule system is composed of two distinct cell populations: the nephrons forming the filtering units and the collecting duct system derived from the ureteric bud. Nephrons are composed of glomeruli that filter the blood to the Bowman's capsule and tubular structures that reabsorb and concentrate primary urine. The collecting duct is a Wolffian duct-derived epithelial tube that concentrates and collects urine and transfers it via the renal pelvis into the bladder. The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework. Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis. As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies. This review focuses on how the pattern of renal development is generated, how the inductive signals are regulated and what are their effects on proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus