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Signaling during Kidney Development.

Krause M, Rak-Raszewska A, Pietilä I, Quaggin SE, Vainio S - Cells (2015)

Bottom Line: The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework.Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis.As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Biocenter Oulu, Oulu University, 90014 Oulu, Finland. mirja.krause@oulu.fi.

ABSTRACT
The kidney plays an essential role during excretion of metabolic waste products, maintenance of key homeostasis components such as ion concentrations and hormone levels. It influences the blood pressure, composition and volume. The kidney tubule system is composed of two distinct cell populations: the nephrons forming the filtering units and the collecting duct system derived from the ureteric bud. Nephrons are composed of glomeruli that filter the blood to the Bowman's capsule and tubular structures that reabsorb and concentrate primary urine. The collecting duct is a Wolffian duct-derived epithelial tube that concentrates and collects urine and transfers it via the renal pelvis into the bladder. The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework. Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis. As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies. This review focuses on how the pattern of renal development is generated, how the inductive signals are regulated and what are their effects on proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic overview of the three stages of kidney development; the pro-, meso and metanephros between E9.0 to E11.5. The wolflian duct (WD) is shown in dark grey. Important signals during nephrogenesis which induce ureteric bud (UB) branching and metanephric mesenchyme (MM) differentiation are shown.
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cells-04-00112-f002: Schematic overview of the three stages of kidney development; the pro-, meso and metanephros between E9.0 to E11.5. The wolflian duct (WD) is shown in dark grey. Important signals during nephrogenesis which induce ureteric bud (UB) branching and metanephric mesenchyme (MM) differentiation are shown.

Mentions: During mammalian kidney development one can identify relics of evolution that represents kidneys in more primitive life forms. Before the adult kidney (the metanephros) develops, embryos have two transient kidneys (the pro- and mesonephros) in a spatial and temporal sequence [5]. The early two forms degenerate or become part of the reproductive system while the metanephros forms the permanent secretory organ (Figure 2). Kidney organogenesis is regulated by sequential and reciprocal cell and tissue interactions. These mutual interactions mostly occur between two progenitor tissues: the epithelial Wolffian duct (WD) -derived ureteric bud (UB) and the metanephric mesenchyme (MM). Both tissue types are derivatives of the intermediate mesoderm (IM), which is a narrow cell population located between the paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm and specializes during gastrulation [6]. Kidney vasculature is also thought to originate from the IM. Although the angioblasts and the endothelial cells that migrate to the kidney organ primordium at the start of organogenesis also play a crucial role during this process [7]. The initiation of the kidney development takes place when the epithelial WD generates the ureteric bud at its extreme caudal end. Subsequently, the UB invades into the predetermined kidney mesenchyme, starts to branch and induces nephrogenesis. This all happens in a sequential manner in the metanephric blastema. Through mesenchymal epithelial transition (MET) and simple morphogenesis steps, it finally forms the nephrons. The migration of the endothelial cells into developing glomerulus is essential to create a functional nephron [5].


Signaling during Kidney Development.

Krause M, Rak-Raszewska A, Pietilä I, Quaggin SE, Vainio S - Cells (2015)

Schematic overview of the three stages of kidney development; the pro-, meso and metanephros between E9.0 to E11.5. The wolflian duct (WD) is shown in dark grey. Important signals during nephrogenesis which induce ureteric bud (UB) branching and metanephric mesenchyme (MM) differentiation are shown.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493451&req=5

cells-04-00112-f002: Schematic overview of the three stages of kidney development; the pro-, meso and metanephros between E9.0 to E11.5. The wolflian duct (WD) is shown in dark grey. Important signals during nephrogenesis which induce ureteric bud (UB) branching and metanephric mesenchyme (MM) differentiation are shown.
Mentions: During mammalian kidney development one can identify relics of evolution that represents kidneys in more primitive life forms. Before the adult kidney (the metanephros) develops, embryos have two transient kidneys (the pro- and mesonephros) in a spatial and temporal sequence [5]. The early two forms degenerate or become part of the reproductive system while the metanephros forms the permanent secretory organ (Figure 2). Kidney organogenesis is regulated by sequential and reciprocal cell and tissue interactions. These mutual interactions mostly occur between two progenitor tissues: the epithelial Wolffian duct (WD) -derived ureteric bud (UB) and the metanephric mesenchyme (MM). Both tissue types are derivatives of the intermediate mesoderm (IM), which is a narrow cell population located between the paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm and specializes during gastrulation [6]. Kidney vasculature is also thought to originate from the IM. Although the angioblasts and the endothelial cells that migrate to the kidney organ primordium at the start of organogenesis also play a crucial role during this process [7]. The initiation of the kidney development takes place when the epithelial WD generates the ureteric bud at its extreme caudal end. Subsequently, the UB invades into the predetermined kidney mesenchyme, starts to branch and induces nephrogenesis. This all happens in a sequential manner in the metanephric blastema. Through mesenchymal epithelial transition (MET) and simple morphogenesis steps, it finally forms the nephrons. The migration of the endothelial cells into developing glomerulus is essential to create a functional nephron [5].

Bottom Line: The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework.Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis.As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Biocenter Oulu, Oulu University, 90014 Oulu, Finland. mirja.krause@oulu.fi.

ABSTRACT
The kidney plays an essential role during excretion of metabolic waste products, maintenance of key homeostasis components such as ion concentrations and hormone levels. It influences the blood pressure, composition and volume. The kidney tubule system is composed of two distinct cell populations: the nephrons forming the filtering units and the collecting duct system derived from the ureteric bud. Nephrons are composed of glomeruli that filter the blood to the Bowman's capsule and tubular structures that reabsorb and concentrate primary urine. The collecting duct is a Wolffian duct-derived epithelial tube that concentrates and collects urine and transfers it via the renal pelvis into the bladder. The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework. Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis. As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies. This review focuses on how the pattern of renal development is generated, how the inductive signals are regulated and what are their effects on proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus