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The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

Hosseinimehr SJ - Radiat Oncol J (2015)

Bottom Line: These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells.Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity.Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Role trace elements in mitigation DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in cells. There are several mechanisms are involved in protection including attenuation of pro-inflammatory, increasing of super oxide dismutase (SOD), metallothionein, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thioredoxin reductase (Thio.reductase), reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell signaling pathways in DNA repair. Zn, zinc; Mn, manganese; Se, selenium; Cu, copper.
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Figure 1: Role trace elements in mitigation DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in cells. There are several mechanisms are involved in protection including attenuation of pro-inflammatory, increasing of super oxide dismutase (SOD), metallothionein, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thioredoxin reductase (Thio.reductase), reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell signaling pathways in DNA repair. Zn, zinc; Mn, manganese; Se, selenium; Cu, copper.

Mentions: Several mechanisms are proposed for protective effects of trace elements against DNA damage induced by IR, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and DNA stabilizing. Several preclinical studies reported the radioprotective effects of trace elements on the genotoxicity induced by IR. Pre-treatment with Zn both in vivo and in vitro increased metallothionein level in animal lymphocytes, and resulted in resistance to gamma radiation induced chromosome damages. Pretreatment with Cu (in vitro) did not show any protective effect on radiation-induced chromosome damage in animal lymphocytes. Induction of metallothionein synthesis by Zn is one of main factor responsible for radioprotective effect, while Cu-MT did not show any radioprotective effect [49]. Metallothionein acts as a scavenger on radiation-induced peroxides [50]. The higher protection against DNA damage induced by IR was observed for Zn-MT other than Mn-MT and Cu-MT. Metallothionein bound to Zn is high-capacity antioxidant activity to protect radiation-induced DNA damage [51]. Treatment of mice with 30 mg/kg body weight of Zn aspartate 30 minutes before exposure to radiation protected spermatogonia and tetraploid cells from radiation-induced cell killing [5253]. Recovery bone marrow cells in groups of mice exposure to IR and fed with Zn was better than irradiated mice alone [54]. Zn can protect thyroid function against toxicity induced by 131I in rats. Zn has a role in cellular integrity of the thyroid under oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiation [55]. Zn supplementation to 131I treated rats, attenuatd the thyroid toxicity induced by 131I through the levels of MDA, GSH, SOD and catalase [5657]. The effect of zinc on genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide was evaluated in normal human lymphocytes and human myelogenous leukemia K562 cancer cell. Zn protected normal cells against DNA damage and increased this effect in cancer cell, which indicates the dual action of Zn in dependency of normal or cancer cells and can be useful in cancer therapy [58]. Zn-f motifs participate in protein-nucleic acid and protein-protein interactions in many groups of proteins, including those involved in DNA repair [59]. Zn-f may enable Lig-3 to rejoin chromosomal DNA strand breaks located at sites of clustered damage induced by ionizing radiation, resulting in maintenance of genetic integrity [29] (Fig. 1). Cu and Fe have crucial roles in Fenton reaction that transforms H2O2 into OH radical, one of the most ROS, resulting in the induction of DNA damage [60]. Normal cells treated with Cu salts to show an increased oxidative stress and DNA damage [61]. However, Cu in Cu/Zn-SOD has a protective role in detoxification of ROS [62]. Some of Cu-complexes exhibited superoxide dismutase-mimic activity and antioxidant activity [63], while other Cu-complexes showed pro-oxidant properties and generated ROS, resulting in DNA cleavage. DNA cleavage and antiproliferative effects of Cu-complexes were studied in many cancer cells for finding new anticancer agents [646566].


The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

Hosseinimehr SJ - Radiat Oncol J (2015)

Role trace elements in mitigation DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in cells. There are several mechanisms are involved in protection including attenuation of pro-inflammatory, increasing of super oxide dismutase (SOD), metallothionein, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thioredoxin reductase (Thio.reductase), reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell signaling pathways in DNA repair. Zn, zinc; Mn, manganese; Se, selenium; Cu, copper.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493430&req=5

Figure 1: Role trace elements in mitigation DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in cells. There are several mechanisms are involved in protection including attenuation of pro-inflammatory, increasing of super oxide dismutase (SOD), metallothionein, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thioredoxin reductase (Thio.reductase), reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell signaling pathways in DNA repair. Zn, zinc; Mn, manganese; Se, selenium; Cu, copper.
Mentions: Several mechanisms are proposed for protective effects of trace elements against DNA damage induced by IR, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and DNA stabilizing. Several preclinical studies reported the radioprotective effects of trace elements on the genotoxicity induced by IR. Pre-treatment with Zn both in vivo and in vitro increased metallothionein level in animal lymphocytes, and resulted in resistance to gamma radiation induced chromosome damages. Pretreatment with Cu (in vitro) did not show any protective effect on radiation-induced chromosome damage in animal lymphocytes. Induction of metallothionein synthesis by Zn is one of main factor responsible for radioprotective effect, while Cu-MT did not show any radioprotective effect [49]. Metallothionein acts as a scavenger on radiation-induced peroxides [50]. The higher protection against DNA damage induced by IR was observed for Zn-MT other than Mn-MT and Cu-MT. Metallothionein bound to Zn is high-capacity antioxidant activity to protect radiation-induced DNA damage [51]. Treatment of mice with 30 mg/kg body weight of Zn aspartate 30 minutes before exposure to radiation protected spermatogonia and tetraploid cells from radiation-induced cell killing [5253]. Recovery bone marrow cells in groups of mice exposure to IR and fed with Zn was better than irradiated mice alone [54]. Zn can protect thyroid function against toxicity induced by 131I in rats. Zn has a role in cellular integrity of the thyroid under oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiation [55]. Zn supplementation to 131I treated rats, attenuatd the thyroid toxicity induced by 131I through the levels of MDA, GSH, SOD and catalase [5657]. The effect of zinc on genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide was evaluated in normal human lymphocytes and human myelogenous leukemia K562 cancer cell. Zn protected normal cells against DNA damage and increased this effect in cancer cell, which indicates the dual action of Zn in dependency of normal or cancer cells and can be useful in cancer therapy [58]. Zn-f motifs participate in protein-nucleic acid and protein-protein interactions in many groups of proteins, including those involved in DNA repair [59]. Zn-f may enable Lig-3 to rejoin chromosomal DNA strand breaks located at sites of clustered damage induced by ionizing radiation, resulting in maintenance of genetic integrity [29] (Fig. 1). Cu and Fe have crucial roles in Fenton reaction that transforms H2O2 into OH radical, one of the most ROS, resulting in the induction of DNA damage [60]. Normal cells treated with Cu salts to show an increased oxidative stress and DNA damage [61]. However, Cu in Cu/Zn-SOD has a protective role in detoxification of ROS [62]. Some of Cu-complexes exhibited superoxide dismutase-mimic activity and antioxidant activity [63], while other Cu-complexes showed pro-oxidant properties and generated ROS, resulting in DNA cleavage. DNA cleavage and antiproliferative effects of Cu-complexes were studied in many cancer cells for finding new anticancer agents [646566].

Bottom Line: These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells.Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity.Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus