Therapeutic targeting of autophagy in neurodegenerative and infectious diseases.
Bottom Line: Autophagy is a conserved process that uses double-membrane vesicles to deliver cytoplasmic contents to lysosomes for degradation.The beneficial roles of autophagy can now be extended to supporting cell survival and regulating inflammation.Preclinical data supporting the potential therapeutic utility of autophagy modulation in such conditions is accumulating.
Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge CB2 OSP, England, UK email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Macroautophagy is one of the major routes for the degradation of intracytoplasmic contents, including proteins and organelles such as mitochondria. The earliest morphologically recognizable intermediates in this pathway are phagophores, which evolve into double-membraned, sac-shaped structures. After the edges of the phagophores extend and fuse, engulfing a portion of cytoplasm, they become known as autophagosomes. These are then trafficked along microtubules in a direction that is biased toward the perinuclear microtubule-organizing center, where the lysosomes are clustered. This brings the autophagosomes close to lysosomes, enabling fusion of these different organelles, after which the lysosomal hydrolases degrade the autophagic contents (Fig. 1).
Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge CB2 OSP, England, UK email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org.