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Cognitive control of conscious error awareness: error awareness and error positivity (Pe) amplitude in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Logan DM, Hill KR, Larson MJ - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Analyses compared between-group no-go accuracy (including accuracy between the first and second halves of the task to measure attention and fatigue), error awareness performance, and Pe amplitude by level of awareness.The M/S TBI group decreased in accuracy and maintained error awareness over time; control participants improved both accuracy and error awareness during the course of the task.Pe amplitude was larger for aware than unaware errors for both groups; however, consistent with previous research on the Pe and TBI, there were no significant between-group differences for Pe amplitudes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University Provo, UT, USA.

ABSTRACT
Poor awareness has been linked to worse recovery and rehabilitation outcomes following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (M/S TBI). The error positivity (Pe) component of the event-related potential (ERP) is linked to error awareness and cognitive control. Participants included 37 neurologically healthy controls and 24 individuals with M/S TBI who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and the error awareness task (EAT), a modified Stroop go/no-go task that elicits aware and unaware errors. Analyses compared between-group no-go accuracy (including accuracy between the first and second halves of the task to measure attention and fatigue), error awareness performance, and Pe amplitude by level of awareness. The M/S TBI group decreased in accuracy and maintained error awareness over time; control participants improved both accuracy and error awareness during the course of the task. Pe amplitude was larger for aware than unaware errors for both groups; however, consistent with previous research on the Pe and TBI, there were no significant between-group differences for Pe amplitudes. Findings suggest possible attention difficulties and low improvement of performance over time may influence specific aspects of error awareness in M/S TBI.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Graphic representation of the EAT task. The EAT presents a serial stream of single color words in incongruent fonts, with the word presented for 900 ms followed by a random inter-trial interval between 1000 and 1500 ms. Participants were trained to respond to each of the words with a single ‘Go trial’ button press, and withhold this response when either of two different circumstances arose. The first was if the same word was presented on two consecutive trials (Repeat No-go), and the second was if the word and color font of the word match (Congruent Stroop No-go). To indicate ‘error awareness’ participants were trained to press the error button on the trial following any commission errors. Adapted from “Neural Mechanisms Involved in Error Processing: A Comparison of Errors Made With and Without Awareness,” by Hester et al. (2005).
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Figure 1: Graphic representation of the EAT task. The EAT presents a serial stream of single color words in incongruent fonts, with the word presented for 900 ms followed by a random inter-trial interval between 1000 and 1500 ms. Participants were trained to respond to each of the words with a single ‘Go trial’ button press, and withhold this response when either of two different circumstances arose. The first was if the same word was presented on two consecutive trials (Repeat No-go), and the second was if the word and color font of the word match (Congruent Stroop No-go). To indicate ‘error awareness’ participants were trained to press the error button on the trial following any commission errors. Adapted from “Neural Mechanisms Involved in Error Processing: A Comparison of Errors Made With and Without Awareness,” by Hester et al. (2005).

Mentions: The main task is summarized in Figure 1. The task employed all of the rules the person was taught during the practice. They were to press “1” if presented with an incongruent stimulus and withhold their response if they saw a congruent stimulus or they saw a consecutively repeated word. If they did press a key when not indicated they were to signal that they made an error by pressing “2” on the next trial. Those no-go trials that were responded to and that were followed by a “2” button press were recorded as aware errors. Those trials where any response was provided on a no-go trial and was followed by a standard “1” button go response on the subsequent trial were recorded as unaware errors (Hester et al., 2005, 2009). Trials where participants made an initial go response on no-go trials, but then immediately responded with an awareness response before waiting to see the next trial were maintained as aware responses only if they then signaled awareness upon seeing the next trial. Trials only recorded the first participant response and were excluded if no response was recorded on go trials. Each word was presented for 900 ms with a random inter-trial interval (ITI) of between 1000 and 1500 ms. The task consisted of four blocks of 225 trials, including 46 no-go trials (23 incongruent and 23 repetitions) and 179 go trials per block for a total of 900 trials (717 go and 183 no-go).


Cognitive control of conscious error awareness: error awareness and error positivity (Pe) amplitude in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Logan DM, Hill KR, Larson MJ - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Graphic representation of the EAT task. The EAT presents a serial stream of single color words in incongruent fonts, with the word presented for 900 ms followed by a random inter-trial interval between 1000 and 1500 ms. Participants were trained to respond to each of the words with a single ‘Go trial’ button press, and withhold this response when either of two different circumstances arose. The first was if the same word was presented on two consecutive trials (Repeat No-go), and the second was if the word and color font of the word match (Congruent Stroop No-go). To indicate ‘error awareness’ participants were trained to press the error button on the trial following any commission errors. Adapted from “Neural Mechanisms Involved in Error Processing: A Comparison of Errors Made With and Without Awareness,” by Hester et al. (2005).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493384&req=5

Figure 1: Graphic representation of the EAT task. The EAT presents a serial stream of single color words in incongruent fonts, with the word presented for 900 ms followed by a random inter-trial interval between 1000 and 1500 ms. Participants were trained to respond to each of the words with a single ‘Go trial’ button press, and withhold this response when either of two different circumstances arose. The first was if the same word was presented on two consecutive trials (Repeat No-go), and the second was if the word and color font of the word match (Congruent Stroop No-go). To indicate ‘error awareness’ participants were trained to press the error button on the trial following any commission errors. Adapted from “Neural Mechanisms Involved in Error Processing: A Comparison of Errors Made With and Without Awareness,” by Hester et al. (2005).
Mentions: The main task is summarized in Figure 1. The task employed all of the rules the person was taught during the practice. They were to press “1” if presented with an incongruent stimulus and withhold their response if they saw a congruent stimulus or they saw a consecutively repeated word. If they did press a key when not indicated they were to signal that they made an error by pressing “2” on the next trial. Those no-go trials that were responded to and that were followed by a “2” button press were recorded as aware errors. Those trials where any response was provided on a no-go trial and was followed by a standard “1” button go response on the subsequent trial were recorded as unaware errors (Hester et al., 2005, 2009). Trials where participants made an initial go response on no-go trials, but then immediately responded with an awareness response before waiting to see the next trial were maintained as aware responses only if they then signaled awareness upon seeing the next trial. Trials only recorded the first participant response and were excluded if no response was recorded on go trials. Each word was presented for 900 ms with a random inter-trial interval (ITI) of between 1000 and 1500 ms. The task consisted of four blocks of 225 trials, including 46 no-go trials (23 incongruent and 23 repetitions) and 179 go trials per block for a total of 900 trials (717 go and 183 no-go).

Bottom Line: Analyses compared between-group no-go accuracy (including accuracy between the first and second halves of the task to measure attention and fatigue), error awareness performance, and Pe amplitude by level of awareness.The M/S TBI group decreased in accuracy and maintained error awareness over time; control participants improved both accuracy and error awareness during the course of the task.Pe amplitude was larger for aware than unaware errors for both groups; however, consistent with previous research on the Pe and TBI, there were no significant between-group differences for Pe amplitudes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University Provo, UT, USA.

ABSTRACT
Poor awareness has been linked to worse recovery and rehabilitation outcomes following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (M/S TBI). The error positivity (Pe) component of the event-related potential (ERP) is linked to error awareness and cognitive control. Participants included 37 neurologically healthy controls and 24 individuals with M/S TBI who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and the error awareness task (EAT), a modified Stroop go/no-go task that elicits aware and unaware errors. Analyses compared between-group no-go accuracy (including accuracy between the first and second halves of the task to measure attention and fatigue), error awareness performance, and Pe amplitude by level of awareness. The M/S TBI group decreased in accuracy and maintained error awareness over time; control participants improved both accuracy and error awareness during the course of the task. Pe amplitude was larger for aware than unaware errors for both groups; however, consistent with previous research on the Pe and TBI, there were no significant between-group differences for Pe amplitudes. Findings suggest possible attention difficulties and low improvement of performance over time may influence specific aspects of error awareness in M/S TBI.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus