Limits...
Inductive generalization with familiar categories: developmental changes in children's reliance on perceptual similarity and kind information.

Godwin KE, Fisher AV - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: The results were not fully consistent with either theoretical account.In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, the youngest children in the study did not ignore perceptually compelling lures in favor of category-match items; in contrast to the predictions of the similarity-based account, no group of participants favored perceptually compelling lures in the presence of dissimilar-looking category-match items.Consistent with the predictions of the similarity-based account, descriptor labels affected the performance of children in all age groups included in the study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Inductive generalization is ubiquitous in human cognition; however, the factors underpinning this ability early in development remain contested. The present study was designed to (1) test the predictions of the naïve theory and a similarity-based account and (2) examine the mechanism by which labels promote induction. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-old children made inferences about highly familiar categories. The results were not fully consistent with either theoretical account. In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, the youngest children in the study did not ignore perceptually compelling lures in favor of category-match items; in contrast to the predictions of the similarity-based account, no group of participants favored perceptually compelling lures in the presence of dissimilar-looking category-match items. In Experiment 2 we investigated the mechanisms by which labels promote induction by examining the influence of different label types, namely category labels (e.g., the target and category-match both labeled as bird) and descriptor labels (e.g., the target and the perceptual lure both labeled as brown) on induction performance. In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, descriptor labels but not category labels affected induction in 3-year-old children. Consistent with the predictions of the similarity-based account, descriptor labels affected the performance of children in all age groups included in the study. The implications of these findings for the developmental account of induction are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Summary of children's performance on the Property Induction Task as a function of label condition (Category Label, No Label Baseline, and Descriptor Label conditions) across age groups. Error bars represent the standard errors of the mean. Line indicates chance performance (0.50). *p-value < 0.05;
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493371&req=5

Figure 3: Summary of children's performance on the Property Induction Task as a function of label condition (Category Label, No Label Baseline, and Descriptor Label conditions) across age groups. Error bars represent the standard errors of the mean. Line indicates chance performance (0.50). *p-value < 0.05;

Mentions: The addition of category labels was not found to impact 3-year-old children's induction performance as there was no significant difference in 3-year-olds' propensity to select the category-match in the Category Label Condition (M = 0.60) compared to the No Label Baseline Condition (M = 0.59), independent sample t(25.81) = 0.07, p = 0.94. A test of statistical equivalence was also conducted using Weber and Popova's (2012) Independent-Samples Equivalence Procedure in order to ascertain whether 3-year-olds' induction performance in the Category label and No Label Baseline conditions were statistically equivalent. The minimum substantial effect (Δ = 0.5) was selected based on Cohen's (1988) guidelines for a medium effect. The equivalence test was significant suggesting that 3-year-olds' induction performance was comparable across these two conditions; t(33) = 0.07, p = 0.006. In contrast, providing category-labels did influence the performance of older children: 4-year old children selected the category-match items significantly more in the Category Label Condition (0.80) compared to the No Label Baseline Condition (0.55), independent sample t(34) = 3.57, p = 0.001. This effect was large, Cohen's d = 1.19. In 5-year-old children the difference in induction performance between the Category Label (0.79) and No Label Baseline Condition (0.66) was marginally significant, independent sample t(34) = 1.75, p = 0.09, Cohen's d = 0.60, see Figure 3. Furthermore, the addition of category labels did not support 3-year-old children's induction performance as they did not select the category-match above chance levels (0.50), single sample t(17) = 1.39, p = 0.18. In contrast, when 4-year-old children were provided with the category-label they selected the category-match items at rates significantly above chance (0.50), single sample t(17) = 6.35, p < 0.0001. Five-year-olds selected category-match items above chance levels (0.50) both in the Category Label Condition and No Label Baseline, both single sample ts > 2.80, both ps < 0.05.


Inductive generalization with familiar categories: developmental changes in children's reliance on perceptual similarity and kind information.

Godwin KE, Fisher AV - Front Psychol (2015)

Summary of children's performance on the Property Induction Task as a function of label condition (Category Label, No Label Baseline, and Descriptor Label conditions) across age groups. Error bars represent the standard errors of the mean. Line indicates chance performance (0.50). *p-value < 0.05;
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493371&req=5

Figure 3: Summary of children's performance on the Property Induction Task as a function of label condition (Category Label, No Label Baseline, and Descriptor Label conditions) across age groups. Error bars represent the standard errors of the mean. Line indicates chance performance (0.50). *p-value < 0.05;
Mentions: The addition of category labels was not found to impact 3-year-old children's induction performance as there was no significant difference in 3-year-olds' propensity to select the category-match in the Category Label Condition (M = 0.60) compared to the No Label Baseline Condition (M = 0.59), independent sample t(25.81) = 0.07, p = 0.94. A test of statistical equivalence was also conducted using Weber and Popova's (2012) Independent-Samples Equivalence Procedure in order to ascertain whether 3-year-olds' induction performance in the Category label and No Label Baseline conditions were statistically equivalent. The minimum substantial effect (Δ = 0.5) was selected based on Cohen's (1988) guidelines for a medium effect. The equivalence test was significant suggesting that 3-year-olds' induction performance was comparable across these two conditions; t(33) = 0.07, p = 0.006. In contrast, providing category-labels did influence the performance of older children: 4-year old children selected the category-match items significantly more in the Category Label Condition (0.80) compared to the No Label Baseline Condition (0.55), independent sample t(34) = 3.57, p = 0.001. This effect was large, Cohen's d = 1.19. In 5-year-old children the difference in induction performance between the Category Label (0.79) and No Label Baseline Condition (0.66) was marginally significant, independent sample t(34) = 1.75, p = 0.09, Cohen's d = 0.60, see Figure 3. Furthermore, the addition of category labels did not support 3-year-old children's induction performance as they did not select the category-match above chance levels (0.50), single sample t(17) = 1.39, p = 0.18. In contrast, when 4-year-old children were provided with the category-label they selected the category-match items at rates significantly above chance (0.50), single sample t(17) = 6.35, p < 0.0001. Five-year-olds selected category-match items above chance levels (0.50) both in the Category Label Condition and No Label Baseline, both single sample ts > 2.80, both ps < 0.05.

Bottom Line: The results were not fully consistent with either theoretical account.In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, the youngest children in the study did not ignore perceptually compelling lures in favor of category-match items; in contrast to the predictions of the similarity-based account, no group of participants favored perceptually compelling lures in the presence of dissimilar-looking category-match items.Consistent with the predictions of the similarity-based account, descriptor labels affected the performance of children in all age groups included in the study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Inductive generalization is ubiquitous in human cognition; however, the factors underpinning this ability early in development remain contested. The present study was designed to (1) test the predictions of the naïve theory and a similarity-based account and (2) examine the mechanism by which labels promote induction. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-old children made inferences about highly familiar categories. The results were not fully consistent with either theoretical account. In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, the youngest children in the study did not ignore perceptually compelling lures in favor of category-match items; in contrast to the predictions of the similarity-based account, no group of participants favored perceptually compelling lures in the presence of dissimilar-looking category-match items. In Experiment 2 we investigated the mechanisms by which labels promote induction by examining the influence of different label types, namely category labels (e.g., the target and category-match both labeled as bird) and descriptor labels (e.g., the target and the perceptual lure both labeled as brown) on induction performance. In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, descriptor labels but not category labels affected induction in 3-year-old children. Consistent with the predictions of the similarity-based account, descriptor labels affected the performance of children in all age groups included in the study. The implications of these findings for the developmental account of induction are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus