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Inductive generalization with familiar categories: developmental changes in children's reliance on perceptual similarity and kind information.

Godwin KE, Fisher AV - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: The results were not fully consistent with either theoretical account.In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, the youngest children in the study did not ignore perceptually compelling lures in favor of category-match items; in contrast to the predictions of the similarity-based account, no group of participants favored perceptually compelling lures in the presence of dissimilar-looking category-match items.Consistent with the predictions of the similarity-based account, descriptor labels affected the performance of children in all age groups included in the study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Inductive generalization is ubiquitous in human cognition; however, the factors underpinning this ability early in development remain contested. The present study was designed to (1) test the predictions of the naïve theory and a similarity-based account and (2) examine the mechanism by which labels promote induction. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-old children made inferences about highly familiar categories. The results were not fully consistent with either theoretical account. In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, the youngest children in the study did not ignore perceptually compelling lures in favor of category-match items; in contrast to the predictions of the similarity-based account, no group of participants favored perceptually compelling lures in the presence of dissimilar-looking category-match items. In Experiment 2 we investigated the mechanisms by which labels promote induction by examining the influence of different label types, namely category labels (e.g., the target and category-match both labeled as bird) and descriptor labels (e.g., the target and the perceptual lure both labeled as brown) on induction performance. In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, descriptor labels but not category labels affected induction in 3-year-old children. Consistent with the predictions of the similarity-based account, descriptor labels affected the performance of children in all age groups included in the study. The implications of these findings for the developmental account of induction are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Visual stimuli used in the Property Induction Task. No labels were presented during the task. Each triad included a target, a category-match test item, and a perceptual-match test item. During the experiment, the target items were presented in the middle of the screen above the test items and approximately equidistant from each test item.
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Figure 1: Visual stimuli used in the Property Induction Task. No labels were presented during the task. Each triad included a target, a category-match test item, and a perceptual-match test item. During the experiment, the target items were presented in the middle of the screen above the test items and approximately equidistant from each test item.

Mentions: The visual stimuli included 14 triads displayed on a computer screen: 7 triads depicted artifacts and the remaining 7 triads depicted animals (see Figure 1). The stimuli were color photographs or detailed color pictures of objects. All triads consisted of a target item, category-match, and a perceptual-match. The triads were designed such that category membership was in conflict with perceptual similarity. Specifically, perceptual-match items matched the target item in both shape and color, and category-match items were selected such that they did not match the target item in either shape or color. Item selection was based on the Familiarity Calibration (described below), which ensured that children of this age group could readily identify the category membership of the items using common basic level labels.


Inductive generalization with familiar categories: developmental changes in children's reliance on perceptual similarity and kind information.

Godwin KE, Fisher AV - Front Psychol (2015)

Visual stimuli used in the Property Induction Task. No labels were presented during the task. Each triad included a target, a category-match test item, and a perceptual-match test item. During the experiment, the target items were presented in the middle of the screen above the test items and approximately equidistant from each test item.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493371&req=5

Figure 1: Visual stimuli used in the Property Induction Task. No labels were presented during the task. Each triad included a target, a category-match test item, and a perceptual-match test item. During the experiment, the target items were presented in the middle of the screen above the test items and approximately equidistant from each test item.
Mentions: The visual stimuli included 14 triads displayed on a computer screen: 7 triads depicted artifacts and the remaining 7 triads depicted animals (see Figure 1). The stimuli were color photographs or detailed color pictures of objects. All triads consisted of a target item, category-match, and a perceptual-match. The triads were designed such that category membership was in conflict with perceptual similarity. Specifically, perceptual-match items matched the target item in both shape and color, and category-match items were selected such that they did not match the target item in either shape or color. Item selection was based on the Familiarity Calibration (described below), which ensured that children of this age group could readily identify the category membership of the items using common basic level labels.

Bottom Line: The results were not fully consistent with either theoretical account.In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, the youngest children in the study did not ignore perceptually compelling lures in favor of category-match items; in contrast to the predictions of the similarity-based account, no group of participants favored perceptually compelling lures in the presence of dissimilar-looking category-match items.Consistent with the predictions of the similarity-based account, descriptor labels affected the performance of children in all age groups included in the study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Inductive generalization is ubiquitous in human cognition; however, the factors underpinning this ability early in development remain contested. The present study was designed to (1) test the predictions of the naïve theory and a similarity-based account and (2) examine the mechanism by which labels promote induction. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-old children made inferences about highly familiar categories. The results were not fully consistent with either theoretical account. In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, the youngest children in the study did not ignore perceptually compelling lures in favor of category-match items; in contrast to the predictions of the similarity-based account, no group of participants favored perceptually compelling lures in the presence of dissimilar-looking category-match items. In Experiment 2 we investigated the mechanisms by which labels promote induction by examining the influence of different label types, namely category labels (e.g., the target and category-match both labeled as bird) and descriptor labels (e.g., the target and the perceptual lure both labeled as brown) on induction performance. In contrast to the predictions of the naïve theory approach, descriptor labels but not category labels affected induction in 3-year-old children. Consistent with the predictions of the similarity-based account, descriptor labels affected the performance of children in all age groups included in the study. The implications of these findings for the developmental account of induction are discussed.

No MeSH data available.