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First record of Neoempheria Osten Sacken (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) biology in the Neotropical region, with associations between its larvae and fungi.

Oliveira SS, Albertoni FF, Borkent CJ, Amorim DS - Biodivers Data J (2015)

Bottom Line: Members of the family Mycetophilidae (Diptera) have life cycles that are typically associated with fungus.The immature stages and adult of N.puncticoxa are described and re-described respectively, and high resolution images and illustrations of the habitus, wings, thorax, male and female terminalia, immatures, and in situ specimens are given.We report the first association between Mycetophilidae and fungi in the Neotropical region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Members of the family Mycetophilidae (Diptera) have life cycles that are typically associated with fungus. Their biology is relatively well known in the Palaearctic, though other regions are poorly known, and there are no associations recorded between mycetophilid immatures and fungi in the Neotropical region. Here we report the first association between a mycetophilid-Neoempheriapuncticoxa Edwards-and fungi in this region. Immatures of N.puncticoxa were collected on fungi and some were reared in the laboratory until adult emergence. The immature stages and adult of N.puncticoxa are described and re-described respectively, and high resolution images and illustrations of the habitus, wings, thorax, male and female terminalia, immatures, and in situ specimens are given.

New information: We report the first association between Mycetophilidae and fungi in the Neotropical region.

No MeSH data available.


Male.
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Figure 1475260: Male.

Mentions: Male (Figs 1, 3a, 5, 6, 14b): Head (Figs 1b, 5): Vertex brownish, with scattered setae, yellowish around eyes. Two ocelli medially on blackish vertex. Frons light brown. Face and clypeus yellowish, covered with setulae. Labellum yellowish, ventrally darker; maxillary palpus brownish, apical segment lighter, segments 3-5 of similar length, first two segments short. Scape and pedicel yellow, rounded, more setose anteriorly; flagellum brown, antenna shorter than thorax, flagellomeres slightly longer than wide. Thorax (Fig. 5): Prosternum brownish. Pronotum yellow, with strong, long, black bristles. Proepisternum yellow, proepimeron brownish posteriorly, both bare. Anepisternum yellow anteriorly with large brown macula on posterior two thirds, bare. Katepisternum yellow on dorsal third, large brown macula occupying ventral two thirds, bare. Mesepimeron yellow, posterior margin brownish, bare. Laterotergite mostly yellow, anterodorsal margin brownish, bare. Mediotergite yellow ventrally, a brownish triangular mark dorsally, bare. Meso- and metapleura yellow, entirely bare. Scutum yellow, with five brown stripes fusing posteriorly, covered with short and long setae, a pair of stronger dorsocentral and a pair of stronger dorsolateral setae posteriorly. Scutellum yellow, with a pair of long scutellar bristles and a few scattered setulae. Legs yellow; forecoxa with some brownish maculae anteriorly, with strong setae in a line on its posterior and ventral margins; tibial setae regularly aligned; tibial spur I almost twice length of tibial diameter at apex, tibial spurs II and III almost four times length of tibial diameter at apex. Halter stem whitish, knob black, setose. Wing (Fig. 3a): Wing venation and color pattern as in the Fig. 3a. Abdomen (Figs 1, 14b): Tergites and sternites mostly yellow; T1 brown posteromedially; T2 brown anteromedially; T3 brown, but yellow laterally; T4 and T6 brown medially, yellow posterolaterally; T5 brown with yellow posterior margin; T7 mostly yellow; sternites mostly yellow, sternites 3 and 5 with brown areas on its surface. Terminalia (Fig. 6): Yellow. T9 weakly developed and sclerotized, with a few setae distally (Fig. 6C). Gonocoxite with large dorsal projection extending beyond apex of gonostylus, densely covered with setae on external face, apex digitiform, mostly bare, a few small setae at apex. Gonostylus well developed, deeply bifid, inner branch secondarily bifid and nearly bare, a few small spines on inner margin, external branch strongly setose. Gonocoxal apodeme short, sclerotized; parameres strongly developed, with a dorsal, membranous, bare projection; cercus and S10 rounded, with some small setae distally (Fig. 6D).


First record of Neoempheria Osten Sacken (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) biology in the Neotropical region, with associations between its larvae and fungi.

Oliveira SS, Albertoni FF, Borkent CJ, Amorim DS - Biodivers Data J (2015)

Male.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493349&req=5

Figure 1475260: Male.
Mentions: Male (Figs 1, 3a, 5, 6, 14b): Head (Figs 1b, 5): Vertex brownish, with scattered setae, yellowish around eyes. Two ocelli medially on blackish vertex. Frons light brown. Face and clypeus yellowish, covered with setulae. Labellum yellowish, ventrally darker; maxillary palpus brownish, apical segment lighter, segments 3-5 of similar length, first two segments short. Scape and pedicel yellow, rounded, more setose anteriorly; flagellum brown, antenna shorter than thorax, flagellomeres slightly longer than wide. Thorax (Fig. 5): Prosternum brownish. Pronotum yellow, with strong, long, black bristles. Proepisternum yellow, proepimeron brownish posteriorly, both bare. Anepisternum yellow anteriorly with large brown macula on posterior two thirds, bare. Katepisternum yellow on dorsal third, large brown macula occupying ventral two thirds, bare. Mesepimeron yellow, posterior margin brownish, bare. Laterotergite mostly yellow, anterodorsal margin brownish, bare. Mediotergite yellow ventrally, a brownish triangular mark dorsally, bare. Meso- and metapleura yellow, entirely bare. Scutum yellow, with five brown stripes fusing posteriorly, covered with short and long setae, a pair of stronger dorsocentral and a pair of stronger dorsolateral setae posteriorly. Scutellum yellow, with a pair of long scutellar bristles and a few scattered setulae. Legs yellow; forecoxa with some brownish maculae anteriorly, with strong setae in a line on its posterior and ventral margins; tibial setae regularly aligned; tibial spur I almost twice length of tibial diameter at apex, tibial spurs II and III almost four times length of tibial diameter at apex. Halter stem whitish, knob black, setose. Wing (Fig. 3a): Wing venation and color pattern as in the Fig. 3a. Abdomen (Figs 1, 14b): Tergites and sternites mostly yellow; T1 brown posteromedially; T2 brown anteromedially; T3 brown, but yellow laterally; T4 and T6 brown medially, yellow posterolaterally; T5 brown with yellow posterior margin; T7 mostly yellow; sternites mostly yellow, sternites 3 and 5 with brown areas on its surface. Terminalia (Fig. 6): Yellow. T9 weakly developed and sclerotized, with a few setae distally (Fig. 6C). Gonocoxite with large dorsal projection extending beyond apex of gonostylus, densely covered with setae on external face, apex digitiform, mostly bare, a few small setae at apex. Gonostylus well developed, deeply bifid, inner branch secondarily bifid and nearly bare, a few small spines on inner margin, external branch strongly setose. Gonocoxal apodeme short, sclerotized; parameres strongly developed, with a dorsal, membranous, bare projection; cercus and S10 rounded, with some small setae distally (Fig. 6D).

Bottom Line: Members of the family Mycetophilidae (Diptera) have life cycles that are typically associated with fungus.The immature stages and adult of N.puncticoxa are described and re-described respectively, and high resolution images and illustrations of the habitus, wings, thorax, male and female terminalia, immatures, and in situ specimens are given.We report the first association between Mycetophilidae and fungi in the Neotropical region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Members of the family Mycetophilidae (Diptera) have life cycles that are typically associated with fungus. Their biology is relatively well known in the Palaearctic, though other regions are poorly known, and there are no associations recorded between mycetophilid immatures and fungi in the Neotropical region. Here we report the first association between a mycetophilid-Neoempheriapuncticoxa Edwards-and fungi in this region. Immatures of N.puncticoxa were collected on fungi and some were reared in the laboratory until adult emergence. The immature stages and adult of N.puncticoxa are described and re-described respectively, and high resolution images and illustrations of the habitus, wings, thorax, male and female terminalia, immatures, and in situ specimens are given.

New information: We report the first association between Mycetophilidae and fungi in the Neotropical region.

No MeSH data available.