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Systematics of the Madagascar Anelosimus spiders: remarkable local richness and endemism, and dual colonization from the Americas.

Agnarsson I, Jencik BB, Veve GM, Hanitriniaina S, Agostini D, Goh SP, Pruitt J, Kuntner M - Zookeys (2015)

Bottom Line: The first subsocial Madagascan species of the theridiid spider genus Anelosimus were described in 2005 when six new species were found to coexist in the Périnet forest fragment within Andasibe-Mantadia NP.The phylogenetic results establish a sister clade relationship between the subsocial Anelosimus in Madagascar and the American 'eximius group', and between the solitary Anelosimusdecaryi on Madagascar and a solitary American clade.These findings imply duplicate colonizations from America, an otherwise rare biogeographical pattern, calling for more detailed investigation of Anelosimus biogeography.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA ; Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Despite the alarming rates of deforestation and forest fragmentation, Madagascar still harbors extraordinary biodiversity. However, in many arthropod groups, such as spiders, this biodiversity remains mostly unexplored and undescribed. The first subsocial Madagascan species of the theridiid spider genus Anelosimus were described in 2005 when six new species were found to coexist in the Périnet forest fragment within Andasibe-Mantadia NP. However, this discovery was based only on a few specimens and the extent of this Madagascan radiation has remained unknown. We here report on a thorough survey of >350 colonies from Périnet, and three pilot surveys into additional Madagascar forests (Ambohitantely, Ranamofana, and Montagne d'Ambre). The morphological, molecular and natural history data from these surveys facilitated a revised taxonomy and phylogenetic hypothesis of Madagascan Anelosimus. This subsocial clade currently comprises six previously known (Anelosimusandasibe Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimusmay Agnarsson, 2005, Anelosimusnazariani Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimussallee Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimussalut Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimusvondrona Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005) and 10 new species: Anelosimusata sp. n., Anelosimusbuffoni sp. n., Anelosimusdarwini sp. n., Anelosimushookeri sp. n., Anelosimushuxleyi sp. n., Anelosimuslamarcki sp. n., Anelosimusmoramora sp. n., Anelosimustita sp. n., Anelosimustorfi sp. n., Anelosimuswallacei sp. n.. With the exception of Anelosimusmay and Anelosimusvondrona, all other species appear to be single forest endemics. While additional sampling is necessary, these data imply a much higher local richness and endemism in Madagascan forests than in any other comparable area globally. The phylogenetic results establish a sister clade relationship between the subsocial Anelosimus in Madagascar and the American 'eximius group', and between the solitary Anelosimusdecaryi on Madagascar and a solitary American clade. These findings imply duplicate colonizations from America, an otherwise rare biogeographical pattern, calling for more detailed investigation of Anelosimus biogeography.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anelosimusnazariani: A epigynum, ventral B epigynum, dorsal; C, female abdomen, ventral D–F male palp dorsal, mesal, ventral.
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Figure 5: Anelosimusnazariani: A epigynum, ventral B epigynum, dorsal; C, female abdomen, ventral D–F male palp dorsal, mesal, ventral.

Mentions: Anelosimussalut females can be diagnosed by having a broad ‘inverted T-shape’ septum that differs from Anelosimusvondrona in not extending the entire length of the epigynum (Fig. 5J). Males can be diagnosed from all other Anelosimus by the relatively short bifurcated TTA (Fig. 4C) and the bilobed embolic division b that is longer and narrower than in other species (Fig. 4D). Anelosimussalut can be diagnosed from other Madagascan Anelosimus on the basis of the following unique mtDNA nucleotide substitutions at the following standard DNA barcode alignment positions: A (38), T(43), T(97), T (369), A (371), T (415), G (460), A (470), A (494), A (568), T (796). It can also be readily diagnosed from most other Anelosimus based the following partially shared nucleotide substitutions, and all other species by their unique combination: A (256, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n. and Anelosimushookeri sp. n.), T (370, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), T (412, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), A (469, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.). A (474, except Anelosimusnazariani), G (521, except Anelosimusvondrona), G (541, except Anelosimussallee and some Anelosimuswallacei sp. n.), A (622, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), T (631, except Anelosimusdarwini sp. n.), A (754, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), T (781, except Anelosimusmay and Anelosimushuxleyi sp. n.), T (940, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), A (961, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), G (994, except most Anelosimushuxleyi sp. n.).


Systematics of the Madagascar Anelosimus spiders: remarkable local richness and endemism, and dual colonization from the Americas.

Agnarsson I, Jencik BB, Veve GM, Hanitriniaina S, Agostini D, Goh SP, Pruitt J, Kuntner M - Zookeys (2015)

Anelosimusnazariani: A epigynum, ventral B epigynum, dorsal; C, female abdomen, ventral D–F male palp dorsal, mesal, ventral.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493342&req=5

Figure 5: Anelosimusnazariani: A epigynum, ventral B epigynum, dorsal; C, female abdomen, ventral D–F male palp dorsal, mesal, ventral.
Mentions: Anelosimussalut females can be diagnosed by having a broad ‘inverted T-shape’ septum that differs from Anelosimusvondrona in not extending the entire length of the epigynum (Fig. 5J). Males can be diagnosed from all other Anelosimus by the relatively short bifurcated TTA (Fig. 4C) and the bilobed embolic division b that is longer and narrower than in other species (Fig. 4D). Anelosimussalut can be diagnosed from other Madagascan Anelosimus on the basis of the following unique mtDNA nucleotide substitutions at the following standard DNA barcode alignment positions: A (38), T(43), T(97), T (369), A (371), T (415), G (460), A (470), A (494), A (568), T (796). It can also be readily diagnosed from most other Anelosimus based the following partially shared nucleotide substitutions, and all other species by their unique combination: A (256, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n. and Anelosimushookeri sp. n.), T (370, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), T (412, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), A (469, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.). A (474, except Anelosimusnazariani), G (521, except Anelosimusvondrona), G (541, except Anelosimussallee and some Anelosimuswallacei sp. n.), A (622, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), T (631, except Anelosimusdarwini sp. n.), A (754, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), T (781, except Anelosimusmay and Anelosimushuxleyi sp. n.), T (940, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), A (961, except Anelosimustorfi sp. n.), G (994, except most Anelosimushuxleyi sp. n.).

Bottom Line: The first subsocial Madagascan species of the theridiid spider genus Anelosimus were described in 2005 when six new species were found to coexist in the Périnet forest fragment within Andasibe-Mantadia NP.The phylogenetic results establish a sister clade relationship between the subsocial Anelosimus in Madagascar and the American 'eximius group', and between the solitary Anelosimusdecaryi on Madagascar and a solitary American clade.These findings imply duplicate colonizations from America, an otherwise rare biogeographical pattern, calling for more detailed investigation of Anelosimus biogeography.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA ; Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Despite the alarming rates of deforestation and forest fragmentation, Madagascar still harbors extraordinary biodiversity. However, in many arthropod groups, such as spiders, this biodiversity remains mostly unexplored and undescribed. The first subsocial Madagascan species of the theridiid spider genus Anelosimus were described in 2005 when six new species were found to coexist in the Périnet forest fragment within Andasibe-Mantadia NP. However, this discovery was based only on a few specimens and the extent of this Madagascan radiation has remained unknown. We here report on a thorough survey of >350 colonies from Périnet, and three pilot surveys into additional Madagascar forests (Ambohitantely, Ranamofana, and Montagne d'Ambre). The morphological, molecular and natural history data from these surveys facilitated a revised taxonomy and phylogenetic hypothesis of Madagascan Anelosimus. This subsocial clade currently comprises six previously known (Anelosimusandasibe Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimusmay Agnarsson, 2005, Anelosimusnazariani Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimussallee Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimussalut Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimusvondrona Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005) and 10 new species: Anelosimusata sp. n., Anelosimusbuffoni sp. n., Anelosimusdarwini sp. n., Anelosimushookeri sp. n., Anelosimushuxleyi sp. n., Anelosimuslamarcki sp. n., Anelosimusmoramora sp. n., Anelosimustita sp. n., Anelosimustorfi sp. n., Anelosimuswallacei sp. n.. With the exception of Anelosimusmay and Anelosimusvondrona, all other species appear to be single forest endemics. While additional sampling is necessary, these data imply a much higher local richness and endemism in Madagascan forests than in any other comparable area globally. The phylogenetic results establish a sister clade relationship between the subsocial Anelosimus in Madagascar and the American 'eximius group', and between the solitary Anelosimusdecaryi on Madagascar and a solitary American clade. These findings imply duplicate colonizations from America, an otherwise rare biogeographical pattern, calling for more detailed investigation of Anelosimus biogeography.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus