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Systematics of the Madagascar Anelosimus spiders: remarkable local richness and endemism, and dual colonization from the Americas.

Agnarsson I, Jencik BB, Veve GM, Hanitriniaina S, Agostini D, Goh SP, Pruitt J, Kuntner M - Zookeys (2015)

Bottom Line: The first subsocial Madagascan species of the theridiid spider genus Anelosimus were described in 2005 when six new species were found to coexist in the Périnet forest fragment within Andasibe-Mantadia NP.The phylogenetic results establish a sister clade relationship between the subsocial Anelosimus in Madagascar and the American 'eximius group', and between the solitary Anelosimusdecaryi on Madagascar and a solitary American clade.These findings imply duplicate colonizations from America, an otherwise rare biogeographical pattern, calling for more detailed investigation of Anelosimus biogeography.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA ; Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Despite the alarming rates of deforestation and forest fragmentation, Madagascar still harbors extraordinary biodiversity. However, in many arthropod groups, such as spiders, this biodiversity remains mostly unexplored and undescribed. The first subsocial Madagascan species of the theridiid spider genus Anelosimus were described in 2005 when six new species were found to coexist in the Périnet forest fragment within Andasibe-Mantadia NP. However, this discovery was based only on a few specimens and the extent of this Madagascan radiation has remained unknown. We here report on a thorough survey of >350 colonies from Périnet, and three pilot surveys into additional Madagascar forests (Ambohitantely, Ranamofana, and Montagne d'Ambre). The morphological, molecular and natural history data from these surveys facilitated a revised taxonomy and phylogenetic hypothesis of Madagascan Anelosimus. This subsocial clade currently comprises six previously known (Anelosimusandasibe Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimusmay Agnarsson, 2005, Anelosimusnazariani Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimussallee Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimussalut Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimusvondrona Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005) and 10 new species: Anelosimusata sp. n., Anelosimusbuffoni sp. n., Anelosimusdarwini sp. n., Anelosimushookeri sp. n., Anelosimushuxleyi sp. n., Anelosimuslamarcki sp. n., Anelosimusmoramora sp. n., Anelosimustita sp. n., Anelosimustorfi sp. n., Anelosimuswallacei sp. n.. With the exception of Anelosimusmay and Anelosimusvondrona, all other species appear to be single forest endemics. While additional sampling is necessary, these data imply a much higher local richness and endemism in Madagascan forests than in any other comparable area globally. The phylogenetic results establish a sister clade relationship between the subsocial Anelosimus in Madagascar and the American 'eximius group', and between the solitary Anelosimusdecaryi on Madagascar and a solitary American clade. These findings imply duplicate colonizations from America, an otherwise rare biogeographical pattern, calling for more detailed investigation of Anelosimus biogeography.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A Bayesian phylogeny of Madagascar Anelosimus and worldwide relatives. Terminal taxa are replaced by species names, full results including all taxon details are found in Suppl. material 1. Black stars indicate 100 posterior probability support, gray stars 85–99%. The replicated sister relationship between Madagascan and American clades is highlighted in blue and red, with the total distribution of each lineage indicated on the maps in lower left. Dots on right map indicate collection localities for the current study. Spider photograph is of the European Anelosimusvittatus, adapted from a photo by Glenn Halvor Morka.
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Figure 1: A Bayesian phylogeny of Madagascar Anelosimus and worldwide relatives. Terminal taxa are replaced by species names, full results including all taxon details are found in Suppl. material 1. Black stars indicate 100 posterior probability support, gray stars 85–99%. The replicated sister relationship between Madagascan and American clades is highlighted in blue and red, with the total distribution of each lineage indicated on the maps in lower left. Dots on right map indicate collection localities for the current study. Spider photograph is of the European Anelosimusvittatus, adapted from a photo by Glenn Halvor Morka.

Mentions: Our total dataset contained specimens from >400 colonies and sequence data from 357 Madagascan individuals, plus global representatives. COI barcodes, totaling 1011 bp, were obtained from most sequenced specimens and 336 individuals were included in the barcode analysis (Supplementary Material). Three additional loci were obtained from a small subset for a phylogenetic matrix of 3409 bp for 114 global terminals (Figure 1). Morphological examination and phylogenetic analyses reveal ten new Anelosimus species from four forest fragments in Madagascar. The only intensely surveyed forest, Périnet Special Reserve in the Andasibe-Mantadia National Park contained a remarkable assemblage of 10 species, adding four new species to the six recently described ones. Some of the species are fully allopatric with respect to their closest relative in the tree, consistent with allopatric speciation in this clade. However, others occur in sympatry with their closest relatives. Anelosimus is globally distributed, but this local diversity far exceeds that of any other locality in the World. Other forests in Madagascar contained fewer species, but in two of them we still uncovered impressive diversity given the limited sampling. For example, we were able to collect for only a few hours in Ambohitantely, finding approximately 15 colonies, and these contained a total of 5 species, thereof four new to science. Further systematic sampling of these and other montane forest fragments in Madagascar thus promises to continue to discover diversity in this clade. Anelosimus has been most thoroughly studied in the Americas (Agnarsson et al. 2007; 2010c; Albo et al. 2007; Aviles 1986; Aviles and Bukowski 2006; Aviles and Gelsey 1998; Aviles et al. 2006) where the genus was thought to be most species rich. However, the island of Madagascar now seems to harbor a comparable radiation.


Systematics of the Madagascar Anelosimus spiders: remarkable local richness and endemism, and dual colonization from the Americas.

Agnarsson I, Jencik BB, Veve GM, Hanitriniaina S, Agostini D, Goh SP, Pruitt J, Kuntner M - Zookeys (2015)

A Bayesian phylogeny of Madagascar Anelosimus and worldwide relatives. Terminal taxa are replaced by species names, full results including all taxon details are found in Suppl. material 1. Black stars indicate 100 posterior probability support, gray stars 85–99%. The replicated sister relationship between Madagascan and American clades is highlighted in blue and red, with the total distribution of each lineage indicated on the maps in lower left. Dots on right map indicate collection localities for the current study. Spider photograph is of the European Anelosimusvittatus, adapted from a photo by Glenn Halvor Morka.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493342&req=5

Figure 1: A Bayesian phylogeny of Madagascar Anelosimus and worldwide relatives. Terminal taxa are replaced by species names, full results including all taxon details are found in Suppl. material 1. Black stars indicate 100 posterior probability support, gray stars 85–99%. The replicated sister relationship between Madagascan and American clades is highlighted in blue and red, with the total distribution of each lineage indicated on the maps in lower left. Dots on right map indicate collection localities for the current study. Spider photograph is of the European Anelosimusvittatus, adapted from a photo by Glenn Halvor Morka.
Mentions: Our total dataset contained specimens from >400 colonies and sequence data from 357 Madagascan individuals, plus global representatives. COI barcodes, totaling 1011 bp, were obtained from most sequenced specimens and 336 individuals were included in the barcode analysis (Supplementary Material). Three additional loci were obtained from a small subset for a phylogenetic matrix of 3409 bp for 114 global terminals (Figure 1). Morphological examination and phylogenetic analyses reveal ten new Anelosimus species from four forest fragments in Madagascar. The only intensely surveyed forest, Périnet Special Reserve in the Andasibe-Mantadia National Park contained a remarkable assemblage of 10 species, adding four new species to the six recently described ones. Some of the species are fully allopatric with respect to their closest relative in the tree, consistent with allopatric speciation in this clade. However, others occur in sympatry with their closest relatives. Anelosimus is globally distributed, but this local diversity far exceeds that of any other locality in the World. Other forests in Madagascar contained fewer species, but in two of them we still uncovered impressive diversity given the limited sampling. For example, we were able to collect for only a few hours in Ambohitantely, finding approximately 15 colonies, and these contained a total of 5 species, thereof four new to science. Further systematic sampling of these and other montane forest fragments in Madagascar thus promises to continue to discover diversity in this clade. Anelosimus has been most thoroughly studied in the Americas (Agnarsson et al. 2007; 2010c; Albo et al. 2007; Aviles 1986; Aviles and Bukowski 2006; Aviles and Gelsey 1998; Aviles et al. 2006) where the genus was thought to be most species rich. However, the island of Madagascar now seems to harbor a comparable radiation.

Bottom Line: The first subsocial Madagascan species of the theridiid spider genus Anelosimus were described in 2005 when six new species were found to coexist in the Périnet forest fragment within Andasibe-Mantadia NP.The phylogenetic results establish a sister clade relationship between the subsocial Anelosimus in Madagascar and the American 'eximius group', and between the solitary Anelosimusdecaryi on Madagascar and a solitary American clade.These findings imply duplicate colonizations from America, an otherwise rare biogeographical pattern, calling for more detailed investigation of Anelosimus biogeography.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA ; Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Despite the alarming rates of deforestation and forest fragmentation, Madagascar still harbors extraordinary biodiversity. However, in many arthropod groups, such as spiders, this biodiversity remains mostly unexplored and undescribed. The first subsocial Madagascan species of the theridiid spider genus Anelosimus were described in 2005 when six new species were found to coexist in the Périnet forest fragment within Andasibe-Mantadia NP. However, this discovery was based only on a few specimens and the extent of this Madagascan radiation has remained unknown. We here report on a thorough survey of >350 colonies from Périnet, and three pilot surveys into additional Madagascar forests (Ambohitantely, Ranamofana, and Montagne d'Ambre). The morphological, molecular and natural history data from these surveys facilitated a revised taxonomy and phylogenetic hypothesis of Madagascan Anelosimus. This subsocial clade currently comprises six previously known (Anelosimusandasibe Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimusmay Agnarsson, 2005, Anelosimusnazariani Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimussallee Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimussalut Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, Anelosimusvondrona Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005) and 10 new species: Anelosimusata sp. n., Anelosimusbuffoni sp. n., Anelosimusdarwini sp. n., Anelosimushookeri sp. n., Anelosimushuxleyi sp. n., Anelosimuslamarcki sp. n., Anelosimusmoramora sp. n., Anelosimustita sp. n., Anelosimustorfi sp. n., Anelosimuswallacei sp. n.. With the exception of Anelosimusmay and Anelosimusvondrona, all other species appear to be single forest endemics. While additional sampling is necessary, these data imply a much higher local richness and endemism in Madagascan forests than in any other comparable area globally. The phylogenetic results establish a sister clade relationship between the subsocial Anelosimus in Madagascar and the American 'eximius group', and between the solitary Anelosimusdecaryi on Madagascar and a solitary American clade. These findings imply duplicate colonizations from America, an otherwise rare biogeographical pattern, calling for more detailed investigation of Anelosimus biogeography.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus