Mixed-complexity artificial grammar learning in humans and macaque monkeys: evaluating learning strategies.
Bottom Line: We found no significant sensitivity to the non-adjacent AG relationships in the macaques.The results suggest that humans and macaques are largely comparably sensitive to the adjacent AG relationships and their statistical properties.However, in the presence of multiple cues to grammaticality, the non-adjacent relationships are less salient to the macaques and many of the humans.
Affiliation: Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Henry Wellcome Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK; Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The stimuli in the Rhesus macaque and the human experiments were identical. Each of the stimulus sequences (Fig. 1B) was created by digitally combining recordings of naturally spoken nonsense words produced by a female speaker based on an AG (Fig. 1A) developed by Saffran (2002) and (Saffran et al., 2008). Nonsense words were selected as stimuli because they have the advantage of being spectro‐temporally complex stimuli that are easy to distinguish from each other. The nonsense words were recorded with an Edirol R‐09HR (Roland) sound recorder. The amplitude of the recorded sounds was root‐mean‐square balanced. We computed the power spectra of the nonsense word stimuli and confirmed that they fall well within the auditory ranges of both species (Fig. S3). The nonsense word stimuli were randomly assigned to the AG elements (i.e. A = ‘yag’, C = ‘kem’, etc.). They were then combined into exposure and testing sequences using customised Matlab scripts (150 ms inter‐stimulus intervals). All the nonsense words were duration matched (413 ms), and each test sequence contained five nonsense word elements (sequence duration = 2665 ms).
Affiliation: Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Henry Wellcome Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK; Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.