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Single-Stranded DNA Aptamers against Pathogens and Toxins: Identification and Biosensing Applications.

Hong KL, Sooter LJ - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Molecular recognition elements (MREs) can be short sequences of single-stranded DNA, RNA, small peptides, or antibody fragments.There has been an increasing interest in the identification and application of nucleic acid molecular recognition elements, commonly known as aptamers, since they were first described in 1990 by the Gold and Szostak laboratories.Lastly, an overview of the basic principles of ssDNA aptamer-based biosensors is discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1 Medical Center Drive, P.O. Box 9530, Morgantown, WV 20506, USA.

ABSTRACT
Molecular recognition elements (MREs) can be short sequences of single-stranded DNA, RNA, small peptides, or antibody fragments. They can bind to user-defined targets with high affinity and specificity. There has been an increasing interest in the identification and application of nucleic acid molecular recognition elements, commonly known as aptamers, since they were first described in 1990 by the Gold and Szostak laboratories. A large number of target specific nucleic acids MREs and their applications are currently in the literature. This review first describes the general methodologies used in identifying single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers. It then summarizes advancements in the identification and biosensing application of ssDNA aptamers specific for bacteria, viruses, their associated molecules, and selected chemical toxins. Lastly, an overview of the basic principles of ssDNA aptamer-based biosensors is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustration of examples of ssDNA MRE modified enzyme linked assays. (a) A representation of a direct MREs modified enzyme linked assay with MRE as the reporter. (b) A representation of an indirect MREs modified enzyme linked assay with MRE as the target capturing element.
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fig6: Illustration of examples of ssDNA MRE modified enzyme linked assays. (a) A representation of a direct MREs modified enzyme linked assay with MRE as the reporter. (b) A representation of an indirect MREs modified enzyme linked assay with MRE as the target capturing element.

Mentions: Nucleic acid MREs have been used in modified enzyme linked immunoassays, usually substituting for either the capturing or the reporter antibodies. In a direct oligonucleotide enzyme link assay, often the protein target is adsorbed on plate and biotinylated MREs bind to the target and then followed by the addition of streptavidin-horse radish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate and enzyme substrate for signal development [148]. In a sandwich assay, biotinylated MREs can be immobilized on streptavidin plate and then followed by the addition of the protein target, HRP linked antibody, and enzyme substrate [98]. This detection method is mostly limited to clinical laboratory settings and detection of protein targets for which antibodies have been isolated (Figure 6).


Single-Stranded DNA Aptamers against Pathogens and Toxins: Identification and Biosensing Applications.

Hong KL, Sooter LJ - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Illustration of examples of ssDNA MRE modified enzyme linked assays. (a) A representation of a direct MREs modified enzyme linked assay with MRE as the reporter. (b) A representation of an indirect MREs modified enzyme linked assay with MRE as the target capturing element.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493287&req=5

fig6: Illustration of examples of ssDNA MRE modified enzyme linked assays. (a) A representation of a direct MREs modified enzyme linked assay with MRE as the reporter. (b) A representation of an indirect MREs modified enzyme linked assay with MRE as the target capturing element.
Mentions: Nucleic acid MREs have been used in modified enzyme linked immunoassays, usually substituting for either the capturing or the reporter antibodies. In a direct oligonucleotide enzyme link assay, often the protein target is adsorbed on plate and biotinylated MREs bind to the target and then followed by the addition of streptavidin-horse radish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate and enzyme substrate for signal development [148]. In a sandwich assay, biotinylated MREs can be immobilized on streptavidin plate and then followed by the addition of the protein target, HRP linked antibody, and enzyme substrate [98]. This detection method is mostly limited to clinical laboratory settings and detection of protein targets for which antibodies have been isolated (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Molecular recognition elements (MREs) can be short sequences of single-stranded DNA, RNA, small peptides, or antibody fragments.There has been an increasing interest in the identification and application of nucleic acid molecular recognition elements, commonly known as aptamers, since they were first described in 1990 by the Gold and Szostak laboratories.Lastly, an overview of the basic principles of ssDNA aptamer-based biosensors is discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1 Medical Center Drive, P.O. Box 9530, Morgantown, WV 20506, USA.

ABSTRACT
Molecular recognition elements (MREs) can be short sequences of single-stranded DNA, RNA, small peptides, or antibody fragments. They can bind to user-defined targets with high affinity and specificity. There has been an increasing interest in the identification and application of nucleic acid molecular recognition elements, commonly known as aptamers, since they were first described in 1990 by the Gold and Szostak laboratories. A large number of target specific nucleic acids MREs and their applications are currently in the literature. This review first describes the general methodologies used in identifying single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers. It then summarizes advancements in the identification and biosensing application of ssDNA aptamers specific for bacteria, viruses, their associated molecules, and selected chemical toxins. Lastly, an overview of the basic principles of ssDNA aptamer-based biosensors is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus