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Single-Stranded DNA Aptamers against Pathogens and Toxins: Identification and Biosensing Applications.

Hong KL, Sooter LJ - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Molecular recognition elements (MREs) can be short sequences of single-stranded DNA, RNA, small peptides, or antibody fragments.There has been an increasing interest in the identification and application of nucleic acid molecular recognition elements, commonly known as aptamers, since they were first described in 1990 by the Gold and Szostak laboratories.Lastly, an overview of the basic principles of ssDNA aptamer-based biosensors is discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1 Medical Center Drive, P.O. Box 9530, Morgantown, WV 20506, USA.

ABSTRACT
Molecular recognition elements (MREs) can be short sequences of single-stranded DNA, RNA, small peptides, or antibody fragments. They can bind to user-defined targets with high affinity and specificity. There has been an increasing interest in the identification and application of nucleic acid molecular recognition elements, commonly known as aptamers, since they were first described in 1990 by the Gold and Szostak laboratories. A large number of target specific nucleic acids MREs and their applications are currently in the literature. This review first describes the general methodologies used in identifying single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers. It then summarizes advancements in the identification and biosensing application of ssDNA aptamers specific for bacteria, viruses, their associated molecules, and selected chemical toxins. Lastly, an overview of the basic principles of ssDNA aptamer-based biosensors is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustration of examples of signal enhancement methods in ssDNA MRE based electrochemical biosensors. (a) A representation of a single-walled carbon nanotubes field effect transistors. (b) A representation of gold nanoparticles carrying redox labels in a sandwich detection style.
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fig3: Illustration of examples of signal enhancement methods in ssDNA MRE based electrochemical biosensors. (a) A representation of a single-walled carbon nanotubes field effect transistors. (b) A representation of gold nanoparticles carrying redox labels in a sandwich detection style.

Mentions: Nanomaterials can also be incorporated into electrochemical sensor to enhance signals. Single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors (SWCNT-FET) can be used to build electrochemical biosensors (Figure 3). In this system, MREs are immobilized on SWCNTs and SWCNTs are sandwiched between a source and a drain electrode. When the immobilized MREs bind to the target, there is a measurable change in the conductance of the system [240]. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are also widely used as signal enhancers. AuNPs can be coated on electrodes and greatly increase the surface area. As a result, more MREs can be immobilized on the electrode, thus enhancing the system's sensitivity. AuNPs can also be coated with a second MRE and reporting probes in a sandwich assay (Figure 3). In this case, the target first binds to a primary capturing MRE, followed by the binding a secondary reporting MRE along with a redox molecule, which can generate an enhanced signal for sensitive detection [263].


Single-Stranded DNA Aptamers against Pathogens and Toxins: Identification and Biosensing Applications.

Hong KL, Sooter LJ - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Illustration of examples of signal enhancement methods in ssDNA MRE based electrochemical biosensors. (a) A representation of a single-walled carbon nanotubes field effect transistors. (b) A representation of gold nanoparticles carrying redox labels in a sandwich detection style.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493287&req=5

fig3: Illustration of examples of signal enhancement methods in ssDNA MRE based electrochemical biosensors. (a) A representation of a single-walled carbon nanotubes field effect transistors. (b) A representation of gold nanoparticles carrying redox labels in a sandwich detection style.
Mentions: Nanomaterials can also be incorporated into electrochemical sensor to enhance signals. Single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors (SWCNT-FET) can be used to build electrochemical biosensors (Figure 3). In this system, MREs are immobilized on SWCNTs and SWCNTs are sandwiched between a source and a drain electrode. When the immobilized MREs bind to the target, there is a measurable change in the conductance of the system [240]. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are also widely used as signal enhancers. AuNPs can be coated on electrodes and greatly increase the surface area. As a result, more MREs can be immobilized on the electrode, thus enhancing the system's sensitivity. AuNPs can also be coated with a second MRE and reporting probes in a sandwich assay (Figure 3). In this case, the target first binds to a primary capturing MRE, followed by the binding a secondary reporting MRE along with a redox molecule, which can generate an enhanced signal for sensitive detection [263].

Bottom Line: Molecular recognition elements (MREs) can be short sequences of single-stranded DNA, RNA, small peptides, or antibody fragments.There has been an increasing interest in the identification and application of nucleic acid molecular recognition elements, commonly known as aptamers, since they were first described in 1990 by the Gold and Szostak laboratories.Lastly, an overview of the basic principles of ssDNA aptamer-based biosensors is discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1 Medical Center Drive, P.O. Box 9530, Morgantown, WV 20506, USA.

ABSTRACT
Molecular recognition elements (MREs) can be short sequences of single-stranded DNA, RNA, small peptides, or antibody fragments. They can bind to user-defined targets with high affinity and specificity. There has been an increasing interest in the identification and application of nucleic acid molecular recognition elements, commonly known as aptamers, since they were first described in 1990 by the Gold and Szostak laboratories. A large number of target specific nucleic acids MREs and their applications are currently in the literature. This review first describes the general methodologies used in identifying single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers. It then summarizes advancements in the identification and biosensing application of ssDNA aptamers specific for bacteria, viruses, their associated molecules, and selected chemical toxins. Lastly, an overview of the basic principles of ssDNA aptamer-based biosensors is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus