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In Silico Identification and In Vitro and In Vivo Validation of Anti-Psychotic Drug Fluspirilene as a Potential CDK2 Inhibitor and a Candidate Anti-Cancer Drug.

Shi XN, Li H, Yao H, Liu X, Li L, Leung KS, Kung HF, Lu D, Wong MH, Lin MC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results showed that oral fluspirilene treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth.Moreover, the cocktail treatment with fluspirilene and 5-fluorouracil exhibited the highest therapeutic effect.In view of the fact that fluspirilene has a long history of safe human use, our discovery of fluspirilene as a potential anti-HCC drug may present an immediately applicable clinical therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology Center, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China; Department of Medicine, Southwest Guizhou Vocational and Technical College for Nationalities, Guizhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Surgical resection and conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy ultimately fail due to tumor recurrence and HCC's resistance. The development of novel therapies against HCC is thus urgently required. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathways are important and well-established targets for cancer treatment. In particular, CDK2 is a key factor regulating the cell cycle G1 to S transition and a hallmark for cancers. In this study, we utilized our free and open-source protein-ligand docking software, idock, prospectively to identify potential CDK2 inhibitors from 4,311 FDA-approved small molecule drugs using a repurposing strategy and an ensemble docking methodology. Sorted by average idock score, nine compounds were purchased and tested in vitro. Among them, the anti-psychotic drug fluspirilene exhibited the highest anti-proliferative effect in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Huh7 cells. We demonstrated for the first time that fluspirilene treatment significantly increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, and decreased the expressions of CDK2, cyclin E and Rb, as well as the phosphorylations of CDK2 on Thr160 and Rb on Ser795. We also examined the anti-cancer effect of fluspirilene in vivo in BALB/C nude mice subcutaneously xenografted with human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7 cells. Our results showed that oral fluspirilene treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth. Fluspirilene (15 mg/kg) exhibited strong anti-tumor activity, comparable to that of the leading cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (10 mg/kg). Moreover, the cocktail treatment with fluspirilene and 5-fluorouracil exhibited the highest therapeutic effect. These results suggested for the first time that fluspirilene is a potential CDK2 inhibitor and a candidate anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma. In view of the fact that fluspirilene has a long history of safe human use, our discovery of fluspirilene as a potential anti-HCC drug may present an immediately applicable clinical therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of fluspirilene on the apoptosis of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Fluspirilene treatment at 30 μM or 10 μM concentration significantly increased the percentage of apoptosis in Huh7 and HepG2 cell lines compared to the control in a dose-and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05).
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pone.0132072.g006: Effect of fluspirilene on the apoptosis of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Fluspirilene treatment at 30 μM or 10 μM concentration significantly increased the percentage of apoptosis in Huh7 and HepG2 cell lines compared to the control in a dose-and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05).

Mentions: A drug that can only induce cell cycle arrest is not good enough because the tumors will easy re-grow after withdrawing the drug. Therefore we also investigated whether fluspirilene could induce cell apoptosis (Fig 6). Fluspirilene treatment at 30 μM or 10 μM concentration significantly increased the percentage of apoptosis in Huh7 and HepG2 cell lines compared to the control in a dose-and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). The scatter plots of PI against annexin V are provided in S6 Fig.


In Silico Identification and In Vitro and In Vivo Validation of Anti-Psychotic Drug Fluspirilene as a Potential CDK2 Inhibitor and a Candidate Anti-Cancer Drug.

Shi XN, Li H, Yao H, Liu X, Li L, Leung KS, Kung HF, Lu D, Wong MH, Lin MC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of fluspirilene on the apoptosis of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Fluspirilene treatment at 30 μM or 10 μM concentration significantly increased the percentage of apoptosis in Huh7 and HepG2 cell lines compared to the control in a dose-and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493148&req=5

pone.0132072.g006: Effect of fluspirilene on the apoptosis of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Fluspirilene treatment at 30 μM or 10 μM concentration significantly increased the percentage of apoptosis in Huh7 and HepG2 cell lines compared to the control in a dose-and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05).
Mentions: A drug that can only induce cell cycle arrest is not good enough because the tumors will easy re-grow after withdrawing the drug. Therefore we also investigated whether fluspirilene could induce cell apoptosis (Fig 6). Fluspirilene treatment at 30 μM or 10 μM concentration significantly increased the percentage of apoptosis in Huh7 and HepG2 cell lines compared to the control in a dose-and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). The scatter plots of PI against annexin V are provided in S6 Fig.

Bottom Line: Our results showed that oral fluspirilene treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth.Moreover, the cocktail treatment with fluspirilene and 5-fluorouracil exhibited the highest therapeutic effect.In view of the fact that fluspirilene has a long history of safe human use, our discovery of fluspirilene as a potential anti-HCC drug may present an immediately applicable clinical therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology Center, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China; Department of Medicine, Southwest Guizhou Vocational and Technical College for Nationalities, Guizhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Surgical resection and conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy ultimately fail due to tumor recurrence and HCC's resistance. The development of novel therapies against HCC is thus urgently required. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathways are important and well-established targets for cancer treatment. In particular, CDK2 is a key factor regulating the cell cycle G1 to S transition and a hallmark for cancers. In this study, we utilized our free and open-source protein-ligand docking software, idock, prospectively to identify potential CDK2 inhibitors from 4,311 FDA-approved small molecule drugs using a repurposing strategy and an ensemble docking methodology. Sorted by average idock score, nine compounds were purchased and tested in vitro. Among them, the anti-psychotic drug fluspirilene exhibited the highest anti-proliferative effect in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Huh7 cells. We demonstrated for the first time that fluspirilene treatment significantly increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, and decreased the expressions of CDK2, cyclin E and Rb, as well as the phosphorylations of CDK2 on Thr160 and Rb on Ser795. We also examined the anti-cancer effect of fluspirilene in vivo in BALB/C nude mice subcutaneously xenografted with human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7 cells. Our results showed that oral fluspirilene treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth. Fluspirilene (15 mg/kg) exhibited strong anti-tumor activity, comparable to that of the leading cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (10 mg/kg). Moreover, the cocktail treatment with fluspirilene and 5-fluorouracil exhibited the highest therapeutic effect. These results suggested for the first time that fluspirilene is a potential CDK2 inhibitor and a candidate anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma. In view of the fact that fluspirilene has a long history of safe human use, our discovery of fluspirilene as a potential anti-HCC drug may present an immediately applicable clinical therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus