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Morphogenetic Implications of Peristalsis-Driven Fluid Flow in the Embryonic Lung.

Bokka KK, Jesudason EC, Lozoya OA, Guilak F, Warburton D, Lubkin SR - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The sensation of internal fluid flows has been shown to have potent morphogenetic effects, as has the transport of morphogens.We hypothesize that these effects play an important role in lung morphogenesis.We analyzed the interaction between the internal flows and diffusion and conclude that AP has a strong effect on flow sensing away from the tip and on transport of morphogens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Epithelial organs are almost universally secretory. The lung secretes mucus of extremely variable consistency. In the early prenatal period, the secretions are of largely unknown composition, consistency, and flow rates. In addition to net outflow from secretion, the embryonic lung exhibits transient reversing flows from peristalsis. Airway peristalsis (AP) begins as soon as the smooth muscle forms, and persists until birth. Since the prenatal lung is liquid-filled, smooth muscle action can transport fluid far from the immediately adjacent tissues. The sensation of internal fluid flows has been shown to have potent morphogenetic effects, as has the transport of morphogens. We hypothesize that these effects play an important role in lung morphogenesis. To test these hypotheses in a quantitative framework, we analyzed the fluid-structure interactions between embryonic tissues and lumen fluid resulting from peristaltic waves that partially occlude the airway. We found that if the airway is closed, fluid transport is minimal; by contrast, if the trachea is open, shear rates can be very high, particularly at the stenosis. We performed a parametric analysis of flow characteristics' dependence on tissue stiffnesses, smooth muscle force, geometry, and fluid viscosity, and found that most of these relationships are governed by simple ratios. We measured the viscosity of prenatal lung fluid with passive bead microrheology. This paper reports the first measurements of the viscosity of embryonic lung lumen fluid. In the range tested, lumen fluid can be considered Newtonian, with a viscosity of 0.016 ± 0.008 Pa-s. We analyzed the interaction between the internal flows and diffusion and conclude that AP has a strong effect on flow sensing away from the tip and on transport of morphogens. These effects may be the intermediate mechanisms for the enhancement of branching seen in occluded embryonic lungs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Peristaltic wave dramatically stretches fluid layers adjacent to the occlusion, while modestly affecting distal fluid.If the trachea is open, mixing is much more dramatic than if the trachea is closed. Even for the closed trachea, fluid markers do not return precisely to their original locations despite the low Reynolds number. The spatiotemporal asymmetry of the waveform results in mixing.
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pone.0132015.g006: Peristaltic wave dramatically stretches fluid layers adjacent to the occlusion, while modestly affecting distal fluid.If the trachea is open, mixing is much more dramatic than if the trachea is closed. Even for the closed trachea, fluid markers do not return precisely to their original locations despite the low Reynolds number. The spatiotemporal asymmetry of the waveform results in mixing.

Mentions: Although embryonic AP is in the Stokes flow regime Re≪1, implying reversibility of the flow [12], the waveform is asymmetric and does not generally reverse. Because of the non-reversing waveform, the lumen fluid undergoes a certain amount of mixing (Fig 6, S3 and S4 Videos). If the trachea is closed, the lumen fluid remains in the lumen, but undergoes a small amount of mixing. If the trachea is open, in AP as in breathing, a large amount of fluid can exit the lung and mix with external fluid before refilling the lung. Regardless of the state of the trachea, there is essentially no mixing at the distal airway tips, because fluid shear is small distal to the stenosis.


Morphogenetic Implications of Peristalsis-Driven Fluid Flow in the Embryonic Lung.

Bokka KK, Jesudason EC, Lozoya OA, Guilak F, Warburton D, Lubkin SR - PLoS ONE (2015)

Peristaltic wave dramatically stretches fluid layers adjacent to the occlusion, while modestly affecting distal fluid.If the trachea is open, mixing is much more dramatic than if the trachea is closed. Even for the closed trachea, fluid markers do not return precisely to their original locations despite the low Reynolds number. The spatiotemporal asymmetry of the waveform results in mixing.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493131&req=5

pone.0132015.g006: Peristaltic wave dramatically stretches fluid layers adjacent to the occlusion, while modestly affecting distal fluid.If the trachea is open, mixing is much more dramatic than if the trachea is closed. Even for the closed trachea, fluid markers do not return precisely to their original locations despite the low Reynolds number. The spatiotemporal asymmetry of the waveform results in mixing.
Mentions: Although embryonic AP is in the Stokes flow regime Re≪1, implying reversibility of the flow [12], the waveform is asymmetric and does not generally reverse. Because of the non-reversing waveform, the lumen fluid undergoes a certain amount of mixing (Fig 6, S3 and S4 Videos). If the trachea is closed, the lumen fluid remains in the lumen, but undergoes a small amount of mixing. If the trachea is open, in AP as in breathing, a large amount of fluid can exit the lung and mix with external fluid before refilling the lung. Regardless of the state of the trachea, there is essentially no mixing at the distal airway tips, because fluid shear is small distal to the stenosis.

Bottom Line: The sensation of internal fluid flows has been shown to have potent morphogenetic effects, as has the transport of morphogens.We hypothesize that these effects play an important role in lung morphogenesis.We analyzed the interaction between the internal flows and diffusion and conclude that AP has a strong effect on flow sensing away from the tip and on transport of morphogens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Epithelial organs are almost universally secretory. The lung secretes mucus of extremely variable consistency. In the early prenatal period, the secretions are of largely unknown composition, consistency, and flow rates. In addition to net outflow from secretion, the embryonic lung exhibits transient reversing flows from peristalsis. Airway peristalsis (AP) begins as soon as the smooth muscle forms, and persists until birth. Since the prenatal lung is liquid-filled, smooth muscle action can transport fluid far from the immediately adjacent tissues. The sensation of internal fluid flows has been shown to have potent morphogenetic effects, as has the transport of morphogens. We hypothesize that these effects play an important role in lung morphogenesis. To test these hypotheses in a quantitative framework, we analyzed the fluid-structure interactions between embryonic tissues and lumen fluid resulting from peristaltic waves that partially occlude the airway. We found that if the airway is closed, fluid transport is minimal; by contrast, if the trachea is open, shear rates can be very high, particularly at the stenosis. We performed a parametric analysis of flow characteristics' dependence on tissue stiffnesses, smooth muscle force, geometry, and fluid viscosity, and found that most of these relationships are governed by simple ratios. We measured the viscosity of prenatal lung fluid with passive bead microrheology. This paper reports the first measurements of the viscosity of embryonic lung lumen fluid. In the range tested, lumen fluid can be considered Newtonian, with a viscosity of 0.016 ± 0.008 Pa-s. We analyzed the interaction between the internal flows and diffusion and conclude that AP has a strong effect on flow sensing away from the tip and on transport of morphogens. These effects may be the intermediate mechanisms for the enhancement of branching seen in occluded embryonic lungs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus