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Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

Howard JK, Klausmeyer KR, Fesenmyer KA, Furnish J, Gardali T, Grantham T, Katz JV, Kupferberg S, McIntyre P, Moyle PB, Ode PR, Peek R, QuiƱones RM, Rehn AC, Santos N, Schoenig S, Serpa L, Shedd JD, Slusark J, Viers JH, Wright A, Morrison SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction.Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%).This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Overlap of hotspots.The relative performance of hotspots (top 5% of watersheds by richness) for taxonomic groups of species in matching hotspots for all (blue bars) and vulnerable (red bars) freshwater species. To avoid double counting, hotspots for all and vulnerable species were identified excluding the species in each subgroup for each comparison.
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pone.0130710.g009: Overlap of hotspots.The relative performance of hotspots (top 5% of watersheds by richness) for taxonomic groups of species in matching hotspots for all (blue bars) and vulnerable (red bars) freshwater species. To avoid double counting, hotspots for all and vulnerable species were identified excluding the species in each subgroup for each comparison.

Mentions: We tested how the richness of various groups of species (taxonomic groups and listed species) serve as a proxy for the richness of all other freshwater species using correlation and hotspot overlap analysis. Listed species were the most correlated at the HUC12 watershed scale with the richness of all other freshwater species (0.63), followed by herpetofauna (0.51) and mollusks and plants (0.45) (Fig 8). Insects and other invertebrates had the lowest correlation to all other species (0.23). With the hotspot overlap analysis, we found again that listed species serve as the best proxy for all other species, with a 40% overlap in hotspots, followed by plants (29%), mollusks (27%) and crustaceans (25%) (Fig 9). We also compared hotspots for each group with hotspots of vulnerable freshwater species, since these are in the highest need of conservation action. Hotspots for listed species overlapped with 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species (excluding listed species). Mapping the hotspots shows that hotspots for listed species overlap with hotspots for all other species in the Sacramento River, San Francisco Bay, and South Coast hydrologic regions (Fig 10). However, hotspots congruence is lower in the North Coast and San Joaquin hydrologic regions.


Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

Howard JK, Klausmeyer KR, Fesenmyer KA, Furnish J, Gardali T, Grantham T, Katz JV, Kupferberg S, McIntyre P, Moyle PB, Ode PR, Peek R, QuiƱones RM, Rehn AC, Santos N, Schoenig S, Serpa L, Shedd JD, Slusark J, Viers JH, Wright A, Morrison SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Overlap of hotspots.The relative performance of hotspots (top 5% of watersheds by richness) for taxonomic groups of species in matching hotspots for all (blue bars) and vulnerable (red bars) freshwater species. To avoid double counting, hotspots for all and vulnerable species were identified excluding the species in each subgroup for each comparison.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493109&req=5

pone.0130710.g009: Overlap of hotspots.The relative performance of hotspots (top 5% of watersheds by richness) for taxonomic groups of species in matching hotspots for all (blue bars) and vulnerable (red bars) freshwater species. To avoid double counting, hotspots for all and vulnerable species were identified excluding the species in each subgroup for each comparison.
Mentions: We tested how the richness of various groups of species (taxonomic groups and listed species) serve as a proxy for the richness of all other freshwater species using correlation and hotspot overlap analysis. Listed species were the most correlated at the HUC12 watershed scale with the richness of all other freshwater species (0.63), followed by herpetofauna (0.51) and mollusks and plants (0.45) (Fig 8). Insects and other invertebrates had the lowest correlation to all other species (0.23). With the hotspot overlap analysis, we found again that listed species serve as the best proxy for all other species, with a 40% overlap in hotspots, followed by plants (29%), mollusks (27%) and crustaceans (25%) (Fig 9). We also compared hotspots for each group with hotspots of vulnerable freshwater species, since these are in the highest need of conservation action. Hotspots for listed species overlapped with 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species (excluding listed species). Mapping the hotspots shows that hotspots for listed species overlap with hotspots for all other species in the Sacramento River, San Francisco Bay, and South Coast hydrologic regions (Fig 10). However, hotspots congruence is lower in the North Coast and San Joaquin hydrologic regions.

Bottom Line: Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction.Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%).This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus