Limits...
Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

Howard JK, Klausmeyer KR, Fesenmyer KA, Furnish J, Gardali T, Grantham T, Katz JV, Kupferberg S, McIntyre P, Moyle PB, Ode PR, Peek R, QuiƱones RM, Rehn AC, Santos N, Schoenig S, Serpa L, Shedd JD, Slusark J, Viers JH, Wright A, Morrison SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction.Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%).This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Patterns of richness by data type of California freshwater species.Maps show the number of native freshwater species when summarized by: (A) observational data recorded after 1980; (B) observational data recorded before 1980 or observations of extirpated populations; and (C) data that includes range maps, historical range maps, modeled habitat, professional judgment, critical habitat designations, and management area designations. Spatial data with an unknown observation date or unknown type are not included in any panel. The black lines on the maps represent the major hydrologic regions in the study area.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493109&req=5

pone.0130710.g007: Patterns of richness by data type of California freshwater species.Maps show the number of native freshwater species when summarized by: (A) observational data recorded after 1980; (B) observational data recorded before 1980 or observations of extirpated populations; and (C) data that includes range maps, historical range maps, modeled habitat, professional judgment, critical habitat designations, and management area designations. Spatial data with an unknown observation date or unknown type are not included in any panel. The black lines on the maps represent the major hydrologic regions in the study area.

Mentions: Geographies noted for high species richness are consistent regardless of observation type (Table 2). The San Francisco Bay, Sacramento River, and portions of the South Coast hydrologic regions are consistently identified as biodiversity hotpots whether observational, range, or modeled data are considered (Fig 7). Patterns of diversity for historical observations and extirpated populations appear similar to current observations (Fig 7A and 7B). Modeled and generalized data such as range maps completely cover the study area and provide perhaps the clearest pattern of diversity of freshwater taxa (Fig 7C); however, these patterns are only predictions of taxa presence. Nearly 40% of the study area does not contain a recent (post-1980) observation for any of the freshwater taxa considered in this study (Fig 7A).


Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

Howard JK, Klausmeyer KR, Fesenmyer KA, Furnish J, Gardali T, Grantham T, Katz JV, Kupferberg S, McIntyre P, Moyle PB, Ode PR, Peek R, QuiƱones RM, Rehn AC, Santos N, Schoenig S, Serpa L, Shedd JD, Slusark J, Viers JH, Wright A, Morrison SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Patterns of richness by data type of California freshwater species.Maps show the number of native freshwater species when summarized by: (A) observational data recorded after 1980; (B) observational data recorded before 1980 or observations of extirpated populations; and (C) data that includes range maps, historical range maps, modeled habitat, professional judgment, critical habitat designations, and management area designations. Spatial data with an unknown observation date or unknown type are not included in any panel. The black lines on the maps represent the major hydrologic regions in the study area.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493109&req=5

pone.0130710.g007: Patterns of richness by data type of California freshwater species.Maps show the number of native freshwater species when summarized by: (A) observational data recorded after 1980; (B) observational data recorded before 1980 or observations of extirpated populations; and (C) data that includes range maps, historical range maps, modeled habitat, professional judgment, critical habitat designations, and management area designations. Spatial data with an unknown observation date or unknown type are not included in any panel. The black lines on the maps represent the major hydrologic regions in the study area.
Mentions: Geographies noted for high species richness are consistent regardless of observation type (Table 2). The San Francisco Bay, Sacramento River, and portions of the South Coast hydrologic regions are consistently identified as biodiversity hotpots whether observational, range, or modeled data are considered (Fig 7). Patterns of diversity for historical observations and extirpated populations appear similar to current observations (Fig 7A and 7B). Modeled and generalized data such as range maps completely cover the study area and provide perhaps the clearest pattern of diversity of freshwater taxa (Fig 7C); however, these patterns are only predictions of taxa presence. Nearly 40% of the study area does not contain a recent (post-1980) observation for any of the freshwater taxa considered in this study (Fig 7A).

Bottom Line: Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction.Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%).This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus