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Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

Howard JK, Klausmeyer KR, Fesenmyer KA, Furnish J, Gardali T, Grantham T, Katz JV, Kupferberg S, McIntyre P, Moyle PB, Ode PR, Peek R, QuiƱones RM, Rehn AC, Santos N, Schoenig S, Serpa L, Shedd JD, Slusark J, Viers JH, Wright A, Morrison SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction.Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%).This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Patterns of freshwater species richness by taxonomic group.Maps show richness of: (A) fishes; (B) herpetofauna; (C) birds; (D) mollusks/crustaceans; (E) insects and other invertebrates; (F) plants.
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pone.0130710.g006: Patterns of freshwater species richness by taxonomic group.Maps show richness of: (A) fishes; (B) herpetofauna; (C) birds; (D) mollusks/crustaceans; (E) insects and other invertebrates; (F) plants.

Mentions: Spatial patterns of richness vary by taxonomic group and appear to correspond with distribution of freshwater habitat (Fig 6). For example, fish richness is highest in major rivers in the state including the Sacramento and Klamath river watersheds located in the Sacramento and North Coast hydrologic regions (Fig 6A)(S1 Table). Herpetofauna richness is highest in mountain foothill and coastal areas (Fig 6B), with bird richness being highest in wetland, coastal, and compatible agriculture (e.g., flooded rice) regions of the state (Fig 6C). Richness of mollusks/crustaceans, insects and other invertebrates is concentrated in headwater, spring systems and more isolated pockets of habitat (Fig 6D and 6E). Plant richness appears distributed throughout the state with pockets of high richness even in desert regions which are underrepresented by other taxonomic groups (Fig 6F).


Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

Howard JK, Klausmeyer KR, Fesenmyer KA, Furnish J, Gardali T, Grantham T, Katz JV, Kupferberg S, McIntyre P, Moyle PB, Ode PR, Peek R, QuiƱones RM, Rehn AC, Santos N, Schoenig S, Serpa L, Shedd JD, Slusark J, Viers JH, Wright A, Morrison SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Patterns of freshwater species richness by taxonomic group.Maps show richness of: (A) fishes; (B) herpetofauna; (C) birds; (D) mollusks/crustaceans; (E) insects and other invertebrates; (F) plants.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493109&req=5

pone.0130710.g006: Patterns of freshwater species richness by taxonomic group.Maps show richness of: (A) fishes; (B) herpetofauna; (C) birds; (D) mollusks/crustaceans; (E) insects and other invertebrates; (F) plants.
Mentions: Spatial patterns of richness vary by taxonomic group and appear to correspond with distribution of freshwater habitat (Fig 6). For example, fish richness is highest in major rivers in the state including the Sacramento and Klamath river watersheds located in the Sacramento and North Coast hydrologic regions (Fig 6A)(S1 Table). Herpetofauna richness is highest in mountain foothill and coastal areas (Fig 6B), with bird richness being highest in wetland, coastal, and compatible agriculture (e.g., flooded rice) regions of the state (Fig 6C). Richness of mollusks/crustaceans, insects and other invertebrates is concentrated in headwater, spring systems and more isolated pockets of habitat (Fig 6D and 6E). Plant richness appears distributed throughout the state with pockets of high richness even in desert regions which are underrepresented by other taxonomic groups (Fig 6F).

Bottom Line: Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction.Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%).This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus