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Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

Howard JK, Klausmeyer KR, Fesenmyer KA, Furnish J, Gardali T, Grantham T, Katz JV, Kupferberg S, McIntyre P, Moyle PB, Ode PR, Peek R, Quiñones RM, Rehn AC, Santos N, Schoenig S, Serpa L, Shedd JD, Slusark J, Viers JH, Wright A, Morrison SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction.Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%).This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Patterns of richness and vulnerability of freshwater species endemic to California, watersheds.Maps of (A) the number of endemic freshwater species in each HUC12 watershed (includes current, historic, range and modeled data). The range of endemic species richness is shown in quintiles, therefore the darkest blue is the top 20% of species richness, the lightest blue the lowest 20%.; (; (B) percentage of endemic species considered vulnerable in each HUC12 watershed; and (C) percentage of endemic species in each HUC12 watershed that are listed as endangered or threatened under state or federal ESA lists. Maps in panels B and C share the legend on the right of the figure. The black lines on the maps represent the major hydrologic regions in the study area.
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pone.0130710.g005: Patterns of richness and vulnerability of freshwater species endemic to California, watersheds.Maps of (A) the number of endemic freshwater species in each HUC12 watershed (includes current, historic, range and modeled data). The range of endemic species richness is shown in quintiles, therefore the darkest blue is the top 20% of species richness, the lightest blue the lowest 20%.; (; (B) percentage of endemic species considered vulnerable in each HUC12 watershed; and (C) percentage of endemic species in each HUC12 watershed that are listed as endangered or threatened under state or federal ESA lists. Maps in panels B and C share the legend on the right of the figure. The black lines on the maps represent the major hydrologic regions in the study area.

Mentions: The average richness of endemic taxa per HUC12 by hydrologic regions was greatest in the San Francisco Bay (n = 19), San Joaquin (n = 15), South Coast (n = 14), Sacramento (n = 12), and the Central Coast (n = 11) (Fig 5A). Regions with hydrological connections outside of California–North Coast, North and South Lahontan, and Colorado River–have a lower percentage of California endemic species (n = 7, 5, 3, 4 on average, respectively). More than half of the study area (61%) is comprised of HUC12 watersheds in which over 60% of the endemic species found in those watersheds are considered vulnerable (Fig 5B). As with all native freshwater species, the proportion of endemic species that are listed under state or federal ESA lists is considerably less than the proportion of those considered vulnerable in most HUC12 watersheds (Fig 5C).


Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

Howard JK, Klausmeyer KR, Fesenmyer KA, Furnish J, Gardali T, Grantham T, Katz JV, Kupferberg S, McIntyre P, Moyle PB, Ode PR, Peek R, Quiñones RM, Rehn AC, Santos N, Schoenig S, Serpa L, Shedd JD, Slusark J, Viers JH, Wright A, Morrison SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Patterns of richness and vulnerability of freshwater species endemic to California, watersheds.Maps of (A) the number of endemic freshwater species in each HUC12 watershed (includes current, historic, range and modeled data). The range of endemic species richness is shown in quintiles, therefore the darkest blue is the top 20% of species richness, the lightest blue the lowest 20%.; (; (B) percentage of endemic species considered vulnerable in each HUC12 watershed; and (C) percentage of endemic species in each HUC12 watershed that are listed as endangered or threatened under state or federal ESA lists. Maps in panels B and C share the legend on the right of the figure. The black lines on the maps represent the major hydrologic regions in the study area.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493109&req=5

pone.0130710.g005: Patterns of richness and vulnerability of freshwater species endemic to California, watersheds.Maps of (A) the number of endemic freshwater species in each HUC12 watershed (includes current, historic, range and modeled data). The range of endemic species richness is shown in quintiles, therefore the darkest blue is the top 20% of species richness, the lightest blue the lowest 20%.; (; (B) percentage of endemic species considered vulnerable in each HUC12 watershed; and (C) percentage of endemic species in each HUC12 watershed that are listed as endangered or threatened under state or federal ESA lists. Maps in panels B and C share the legend on the right of the figure. The black lines on the maps represent the major hydrologic regions in the study area.
Mentions: The average richness of endemic taxa per HUC12 by hydrologic regions was greatest in the San Francisco Bay (n = 19), San Joaquin (n = 15), South Coast (n = 14), Sacramento (n = 12), and the Central Coast (n = 11) (Fig 5A). Regions with hydrological connections outside of California–North Coast, North and South Lahontan, and Colorado River–have a lower percentage of California endemic species (n = 7, 5, 3, 4 on average, respectively). More than half of the study area (61%) is comprised of HUC12 watersheds in which over 60% of the endemic species found in those watersheds are considered vulnerable (Fig 5B). As with all native freshwater species, the proportion of endemic species that are listed under state or federal ESA lists is considerably less than the proportion of those considered vulnerable in most HUC12 watersheds (Fig 5C).

Bottom Line: Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction.Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%).This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus