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Gold Nanoparticle-Photosensitizer Conjugate Based Photodynamic Inactivation of Biofilm Producing Cells: Potential for Treatment of C. albicans Infection in BALB/c Mice.

Sherwani MA, Tufail S, Khan AA, Owais M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been found to be effective in inhibiting biofilm producing organisms.We investigated the photodynamic effect of gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilm.The GNP-PS conjugate based PDT was found to effectively kill both C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilm populating hyphal forms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been found to be effective in inhibiting biofilm producing organisms. We investigated the photodynamic effect of gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilm. We also examined the photodynamic efficacy of photosensitizer (PS) conjugated GNPs (GNP-PS) to treat skin and oral C. albicans infection in BALB/c mice.

Methods: The biomimetically synthesized GNPs were conjugated to photosensitizers viz. methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue O (TB). The conjugation of PSs with GNPs was characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of gold nanoparticle conjugates against C. albicans biofilm was demonstrated by XTT assay and microscopic studies. The therapeutic efficacy of the combination of the GNP conjugates against cutaneous C. albicans infection was examined in mouse model by enumerating residual fungal burden and histopathological studies.

Results: The GNP-PS conjugate based PDT was found to effectively kill both C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilm populating hyphal forms. The mixture of GNPs conjugated to two different PSs significantly depleted the hyphal C. albicans burden against superficial skin and oral C. albicans infection in mice.

Conclusion: The GNP-PS conjugate combination exhibits synergism in photodynamic inactivation of C. albicans. The GNP conjugate based PDT can be employed effectively in treatment of cutaneous C. albicans infections in model animals. The antibiofilm potential of PDT therapy can also be exploited in depletion of C. albicans on medical appliances such as implants and catheters etc.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative images of mouse skin infected with C. albicans and stained with periodic acid—Schiff; X400.(A) Untreated control, showing exuberant growth (B) Naked GNPs, showing only mild response to treatment (C) MB treated group and (D) TB exposed group, exhibiting better response to treatment than GNPs (E) GNP-MB group and (F) GNP-TB group, showing inhibition on the growth and hyphal population is also observed to be highly decreased in comparison to control. (G) Combination of both GNP-MB and GNP-TB showing significant inhibition on the growth. The arrows indicate the population of C. albicans yeast cells and hyphae penetrating the skin tissue.
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pone.0131684.g008: Representative images of mouse skin infected with C. albicans and stained with periodic acid—Schiff; X400.(A) Untreated control, showing exuberant growth (B) Naked GNPs, showing only mild response to treatment (C) MB treated group and (D) TB exposed group, exhibiting better response to treatment than GNPs (E) GNP-MB group and (F) GNP-TB group, showing inhibition on the growth and hyphal population is also observed to be highly decreased in comparison to control. (G) Combination of both GNP-MB and GNP-TB showing significant inhibition on the growth. The arrows indicate the population of C. albicans yeast cells and hyphae penetrating the skin tissue.

Mentions: For histopathological studies, skin as well as tongue specimens obtained from infected and PDT treated mice were fixed and stained as described in materials section for analyzing and comparing the efficacy of PDT employing GNP-MB and GNP-TB either alone or in combination for treatment of superficial skin as well as oral C. albicans infection. Fig 8 shows the representative infected skin and tongue sections respectively stained with PAS. As shown in Fig 8, the control image (untreated skin wound) demonstrates the presence of innumerable C. albicans yeast cells and tissue penetrating hyphal filaments whereas the infected wounds treated with GNP-PS mediated PDT exhibited pronounced reduction in the yeast cells and hyphal filaments. Yeast cells can be observed on the cell surface while hyphal filaments are seen to be penetrating the underlying tissue and branching in multi-directions. Naked GNP, MB, TB, GNP-MB and GNP-TB exposed wounds were found to harbour lower yeast cells and hyphal filaments than control yet the reduction is not as marked as seen in the wounds treated with the GNP-MB and GNP-TB combination (Fig 8). Hence, the potential of GNP-PS conjugates was also successfully translated in in vivo conditions.


Gold Nanoparticle-Photosensitizer Conjugate Based Photodynamic Inactivation of Biofilm Producing Cells: Potential for Treatment of C. albicans Infection in BALB/c Mice.

Sherwani MA, Tufail S, Khan AA, Owais M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Representative images of mouse skin infected with C. albicans and stained with periodic acid—Schiff; X400.(A) Untreated control, showing exuberant growth (B) Naked GNPs, showing only mild response to treatment (C) MB treated group and (D) TB exposed group, exhibiting better response to treatment than GNPs (E) GNP-MB group and (F) GNP-TB group, showing inhibition on the growth and hyphal population is also observed to be highly decreased in comparison to control. (G) Combination of both GNP-MB and GNP-TB showing significant inhibition on the growth. The arrows indicate the population of C. albicans yeast cells and hyphae penetrating the skin tissue.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493101&req=5

pone.0131684.g008: Representative images of mouse skin infected with C. albicans and stained with periodic acid—Schiff; X400.(A) Untreated control, showing exuberant growth (B) Naked GNPs, showing only mild response to treatment (C) MB treated group and (D) TB exposed group, exhibiting better response to treatment than GNPs (E) GNP-MB group and (F) GNP-TB group, showing inhibition on the growth and hyphal population is also observed to be highly decreased in comparison to control. (G) Combination of both GNP-MB and GNP-TB showing significant inhibition on the growth. The arrows indicate the population of C. albicans yeast cells and hyphae penetrating the skin tissue.
Mentions: For histopathological studies, skin as well as tongue specimens obtained from infected and PDT treated mice were fixed and stained as described in materials section for analyzing and comparing the efficacy of PDT employing GNP-MB and GNP-TB either alone or in combination for treatment of superficial skin as well as oral C. albicans infection. Fig 8 shows the representative infected skin and tongue sections respectively stained with PAS. As shown in Fig 8, the control image (untreated skin wound) demonstrates the presence of innumerable C. albicans yeast cells and tissue penetrating hyphal filaments whereas the infected wounds treated with GNP-PS mediated PDT exhibited pronounced reduction in the yeast cells and hyphal filaments. Yeast cells can be observed on the cell surface while hyphal filaments are seen to be penetrating the underlying tissue and branching in multi-directions. Naked GNP, MB, TB, GNP-MB and GNP-TB exposed wounds were found to harbour lower yeast cells and hyphal filaments than control yet the reduction is not as marked as seen in the wounds treated with the GNP-MB and GNP-TB combination (Fig 8). Hence, the potential of GNP-PS conjugates was also successfully translated in in vivo conditions.

Bottom Line: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been found to be effective in inhibiting biofilm producing organisms.We investigated the photodynamic effect of gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilm.The GNP-PS conjugate based PDT was found to effectively kill both C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilm populating hyphal forms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been found to be effective in inhibiting biofilm producing organisms. We investigated the photodynamic effect of gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilm. We also examined the photodynamic efficacy of photosensitizer (PS) conjugated GNPs (GNP-PS) to treat skin and oral C. albicans infection in BALB/c mice.

Methods: The biomimetically synthesized GNPs were conjugated to photosensitizers viz. methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue O (TB). The conjugation of PSs with GNPs was characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of gold nanoparticle conjugates against C. albicans biofilm was demonstrated by XTT assay and microscopic studies. The therapeutic efficacy of the combination of the GNP conjugates against cutaneous C. albicans infection was examined in mouse model by enumerating residual fungal burden and histopathological studies.

Results: The GNP-PS conjugate based PDT was found to effectively kill both C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilm populating hyphal forms. The mixture of GNPs conjugated to two different PSs significantly depleted the hyphal C. albicans burden against superficial skin and oral C. albicans infection in mice.

Conclusion: The GNP-PS conjugate combination exhibits synergism in photodynamic inactivation of C. albicans. The GNP conjugate based PDT can be employed effectively in treatment of cutaneous C. albicans infections in model animals. The antibiofilm potential of PDT therapy can also be exploited in depletion of C. albicans on medical appliances such as implants and catheters etc.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus