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Gold Nanoparticle-Photosensitizer Conjugate Based Photodynamic Inactivation of Biofilm Producing Cells: Potential for Treatment of C. albicans Infection in BALB/c Mice.

Sherwani MA, Tufail S, Khan AA, Owais M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been found to be effective in inhibiting biofilm producing organisms.We investigated the photodynamic effect of gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilm.The GNP-PS conjugate based PDT was found to effectively kill both C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilm populating hyphal forms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been found to be effective in inhibiting biofilm producing organisms. We investigated the photodynamic effect of gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilm. We also examined the photodynamic efficacy of photosensitizer (PS) conjugated GNPs (GNP-PS) to treat skin and oral C. albicans infection in BALB/c mice.

Methods: The biomimetically synthesized GNPs were conjugated to photosensitizers viz. methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue O (TB). The conjugation of PSs with GNPs was characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of gold nanoparticle conjugates against C. albicans biofilm was demonstrated by XTT assay and microscopic studies. The therapeutic efficacy of the combination of the GNP conjugates against cutaneous C. albicans infection was examined in mouse model by enumerating residual fungal burden and histopathological studies.

Results: The GNP-PS conjugate based PDT was found to effectively kill both C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilm populating hyphal forms. The mixture of GNPs conjugated to two different PSs significantly depleted the hyphal C. albicans burden against superficial skin and oral C. albicans infection in mice.

Conclusion: The GNP-PS conjugate combination exhibits synergism in photodynamic inactivation of C. albicans. The GNP conjugate based PDT can be employed effectively in treatment of cutaneous C. albicans infections in model animals. The antibiofilm potential of PDT therapy can also be exploited in depletion of C. albicans on medical appliances such as implants and catheters etc.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

GNP-PS conjugate mediated killing of C. albicans inside macrophages and reduction of fungal burden in skin C. albicans infection.(A)C. albicans yeast cells and hyphal filaments are seen to be harbouring the intracellular niche of macrophage. (B) GNP-MB and GNP-TB mixture is exhibited to be the best amongst various formulations taken in inhibiting C. albicans residing within the macrophages. (C) PDT employing GNP-MB and GNP-TB conjugates result in reduced fungal burden in skin C. albicans infection. After a total light exposure of 21.6 J/cm2, GNP-PS complex treated wounds were excised aseptically. The homogenate was plated onto YPD agar plates to count the CFU. The combination of GNP-MB and GNP-TB, in a manner similar to in vitro results, depleted the fungal burden in the skin most efficiently when compared to other formulations. Data are representative of three independent experiments ± SD values. P values<0.05 were considered significant. GNP-MB+GNP-TB vs Control, P<0.005.
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pone.0131684.g007: GNP-PS conjugate mediated killing of C. albicans inside macrophages and reduction of fungal burden in skin C. albicans infection.(A)C. albicans yeast cells and hyphal filaments are seen to be harbouring the intracellular niche of macrophage. (B) GNP-MB and GNP-TB mixture is exhibited to be the best amongst various formulations taken in inhibiting C. albicans residing within the macrophages. (C) PDT employing GNP-MB and GNP-TB conjugates result in reduced fungal burden in skin C. albicans infection. After a total light exposure of 21.6 J/cm2, GNP-PS complex treated wounds were excised aseptically. The homogenate was plated onto YPD agar plates to count the CFU. The combination of GNP-MB and GNP-TB, in a manner similar to in vitro results, depleted the fungal burden in the skin most efficiently when compared to other formulations. Data are representative of three independent experiments ± SD values. P values<0.05 were considered significant. GNP-MB+GNP-TB vs Control, P<0.005.

Mentions: Before proceeding to the in vivo studies, we ascertained the photodynamic inactivation of C. albicans inside the macrophages in vitro. Macrophages loaded with C. albicans and GNP-PS conjugates were irradiated with respective filter probes. As shown in Fig 7A, macrophages endocytose GNP-PS conjugates causing reduction in fungal cell population. GNP-MB and GNP-TB combination rendered a significant decrease in CFU when compared to control (P<0.005). On the other hand, GNP-MB and GNP-TB when used alone could bring about a relatively lower inhibition as compared to the combination of conjugates (Fig 7B).


Gold Nanoparticle-Photosensitizer Conjugate Based Photodynamic Inactivation of Biofilm Producing Cells: Potential for Treatment of C. albicans Infection in BALB/c Mice.

Sherwani MA, Tufail S, Khan AA, Owais M - PLoS ONE (2015)

GNP-PS conjugate mediated killing of C. albicans inside macrophages and reduction of fungal burden in skin C. albicans infection.(A)C. albicans yeast cells and hyphal filaments are seen to be harbouring the intracellular niche of macrophage. (B) GNP-MB and GNP-TB mixture is exhibited to be the best amongst various formulations taken in inhibiting C. albicans residing within the macrophages. (C) PDT employing GNP-MB and GNP-TB conjugates result in reduced fungal burden in skin C. albicans infection. After a total light exposure of 21.6 J/cm2, GNP-PS complex treated wounds were excised aseptically. The homogenate was plated onto YPD agar plates to count the CFU. The combination of GNP-MB and GNP-TB, in a manner similar to in vitro results, depleted the fungal burden in the skin most efficiently when compared to other formulations. Data are representative of three independent experiments ± SD values. P values<0.05 were considered significant. GNP-MB+GNP-TB vs Control, P<0.005.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493101&req=5

pone.0131684.g007: GNP-PS conjugate mediated killing of C. albicans inside macrophages and reduction of fungal burden in skin C. albicans infection.(A)C. albicans yeast cells and hyphal filaments are seen to be harbouring the intracellular niche of macrophage. (B) GNP-MB and GNP-TB mixture is exhibited to be the best amongst various formulations taken in inhibiting C. albicans residing within the macrophages. (C) PDT employing GNP-MB and GNP-TB conjugates result in reduced fungal burden in skin C. albicans infection. After a total light exposure of 21.6 J/cm2, GNP-PS complex treated wounds were excised aseptically. The homogenate was plated onto YPD agar plates to count the CFU. The combination of GNP-MB and GNP-TB, in a manner similar to in vitro results, depleted the fungal burden in the skin most efficiently when compared to other formulations. Data are representative of three independent experiments ± SD values. P values<0.05 were considered significant. GNP-MB+GNP-TB vs Control, P<0.005.
Mentions: Before proceeding to the in vivo studies, we ascertained the photodynamic inactivation of C. albicans inside the macrophages in vitro. Macrophages loaded with C. albicans and GNP-PS conjugates were irradiated with respective filter probes. As shown in Fig 7A, macrophages endocytose GNP-PS conjugates causing reduction in fungal cell population. GNP-MB and GNP-TB combination rendered a significant decrease in CFU when compared to control (P<0.005). On the other hand, GNP-MB and GNP-TB when used alone could bring about a relatively lower inhibition as compared to the combination of conjugates (Fig 7B).

Bottom Line: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been found to be effective in inhibiting biofilm producing organisms.We investigated the photodynamic effect of gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilm.The GNP-PS conjugate based PDT was found to effectively kill both C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilm populating hyphal forms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been found to be effective in inhibiting biofilm producing organisms. We investigated the photodynamic effect of gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilm. We also examined the photodynamic efficacy of photosensitizer (PS) conjugated GNPs (GNP-PS) to treat skin and oral C. albicans infection in BALB/c mice.

Methods: The biomimetically synthesized GNPs were conjugated to photosensitizers viz. methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue O (TB). The conjugation of PSs with GNPs was characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of gold nanoparticle conjugates against C. albicans biofilm was demonstrated by XTT assay and microscopic studies. The therapeutic efficacy of the combination of the GNP conjugates against cutaneous C. albicans infection was examined in mouse model by enumerating residual fungal burden and histopathological studies.

Results: The GNP-PS conjugate based PDT was found to effectively kill both C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilm populating hyphal forms. The mixture of GNPs conjugated to two different PSs significantly depleted the hyphal C. albicans burden against superficial skin and oral C. albicans infection in mice.

Conclusion: The GNP-PS conjugate combination exhibits synergism in photodynamic inactivation of C. albicans. The GNP conjugate based PDT can be employed effectively in treatment of cutaneous C. albicans infections in model animals. The antibiofilm potential of PDT therapy can also be exploited in depletion of C. albicans on medical appliances such as implants and catheters etc.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus