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In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses.

Becerra-Fajardo L, Ivorra A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant.In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with safety standards both in terms of tissue heating and unwanted electro-stimulation.We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters < 0.5 mm) and not only with controlled stimulation capabilities but also with sensing capabilities for artificial proprioception. We in vivo demonstrate that neuroprostheses composed of addressable microstimulators based on this electrical stimulation method are feasible and can perform controlled charge-balanced electrical stimulation of muscles. We developed miniature external circuit prototypes connected to two bipolar probes that were percutaneously implanted in agonist and antagonist muscles of the hindlimb of an anesthetized rabbit. The electronic implant architecture was able to decode commands that were amplitude modulated on the high frequency (1 MHz) auxiliary current bursts. The devices were capable of independently stimulating the target tissues, accomplishing controlled dorsiflexion and plantarflexion joint movements. In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with safety standards both in terms of tissue heating and unwanted electro-stimulation. We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

In vivo setup.It includes the external system (PC, function generator, high voltage amplifier and textile electrodes) and two prototypes connected to two bipolar electrode probes implanted in the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GA) muscles. Using this setup it is possible to independently perform electrical stimulation of either the TA muscle or the GA muscle of the rabbit in response to the commands of the experimenter.
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pone.0131666.g004: In vivo setup.It includes the external system (PC, function generator, high voltage amplifier and textile electrodes) and two prototypes connected to two bipolar electrode probes implanted in the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GA) muscles. Using this setup it is possible to independently perform electrical stimulation of either the TA muscle or the GA muscle of the rabbit in response to the commands of the experimenter.

Mentions: The bipolar probes consist of a 1.17 mm diameter coaxial cable (Filotex ET087059 by Nexans S.A.) whose core conductor (silver plated copper covered steel wire of 0.17 mm diameter) is exposed for 3 mm at its distal tip. A 3 mm wide stainless steel ring of 1.3 mm in diameter has been placed in contact with the shield conductor at a distance of 3 cm from the tip. This forms a probe that consists of two cylindrical electrodes at a distance of 3 cm on a flexible shaft (Fig 4). The proximal tip of the coaxial cable (~ 50 cm) is soldered to a bipolar jack connector that can be plugged into the circuit prototypes. The distal electrode (at the tip) acts as the stimulation electrode whereas the proximal one, which is thicker, acts as the return electrode.


In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses.

Becerra-Fajardo L, Ivorra A - PLoS ONE (2015)

In vivo setup.It includes the external system (PC, function generator, high voltage amplifier and textile electrodes) and two prototypes connected to two bipolar electrode probes implanted in the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GA) muscles. Using this setup it is possible to independently perform electrical stimulation of either the TA muscle or the GA muscle of the rabbit in response to the commands of the experimenter.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493086&req=5

pone.0131666.g004: In vivo setup.It includes the external system (PC, function generator, high voltage amplifier and textile electrodes) and two prototypes connected to two bipolar electrode probes implanted in the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GA) muscles. Using this setup it is possible to independently perform electrical stimulation of either the TA muscle or the GA muscle of the rabbit in response to the commands of the experimenter.
Mentions: The bipolar probes consist of a 1.17 mm diameter coaxial cable (Filotex ET087059 by Nexans S.A.) whose core conductor (silver plated copper covered steel wire of 0.17 mm diameter) is exposed for 3 mm at its distal tip. A 3 mm wide stainless steel ring of 1.3 mm in diameter has been placed in contact with the shield conductor at a distance of 3 cm from the tip. This forms a probe that consists of two cylindrical electrodes at a distance of 3 cm on a flexible shaft (Fig 4). The proximal tip of the coaxial cable (~ 50 cm) is soldered to a bipolar jack connector that can be plugged into the circuit prototypes. The distal electrode (at the tip) acts as the stimulation electrode whereas the proximal one, which is thicker, acts as the return electrode.

Bottom Line: This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant.In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with safety standards both in terms of tissue heating and unwanted electro-stimulation.We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters < 0.5 mm) and not only with controlled stimulation capabilities but also with sensing capabilities for artificial proprioception. We in vivo demonstrate that neuroprostheses composed of addressable microstimulators based on this electrical stimulation method are feasible and can perform controlled charge-balanced electrical stimulation of muscles. We developed miniature external circuit prototypes connected to two bipolar probes that were percutaneously implanted in agonist and antagonist muscles of the hindlimb of an anesthetized rabbit. The electronic implant architecture was able to decode commands that were amplitude modulated on the high frequency (1 MHz) auxiliary current bursts. The devices were capable of independently stimulating the target tissues, accomplishing controlled dorsiflexion and plantarflexion joint movements. In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with safety standards both in terms of tissue heating and unwanted electro-stimulation. We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus