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In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses.

Becerra-Fajardo L, Ivorra A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant.In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with safety standards both in terms of tissue heating and unwanted electro-stimulation.We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters < 0.5 mm) and not only with controlled stimulation capabilities but also with sensing capabilities for artificial proprioception. We in vivo demonstrate that neuroprostheses composed of addressable microstimulators based on this electrical stimulation method are feasible and can perform controlled charge-balanced electrical stimulation of muscles. We developed miniature external circuit prototypes connected to two bipolar probes that were percutaneously implanted in agonist and antagonist muscles of the hindlimb of an anesthetized rabbit. The electronic implant architecture was able to decode commands that were amplitude modulated on the high frequency (1 MHz) auxiliary current bursts. The devices were capable of independently stimulating the target tissues, accomplishing controlled dorsiflexion and plantarflexion joint movements. In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with safety standards both in terms of tissue heating and unwanted electro-stimulation. We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Architecture of the developed circuit prototypes for the microstimulators.The dashed red line represents the flow of stimulating (half-wave) rectified current when control signal 1 (CS1) activates the current source 1. If no current source is active, the switch (SW) closes and the alternating current (AC) picked-up by the muscle electrodes flows through the regulation subcircuit to power up the rest of the electronics. A demodulation subcircuit is used to extract information from the HF bursts, and a burst trigger is used to wake up the control unit when it is asleep in-between “Stimulation bursts”.
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pone.0131666.g002: Architecture of the developed circuit prototypes for the microstimulators.The dashed red line represents the flow of stimulating (half-wave) rectified current when control signal 1 (CS1) activates the current source 1. If no current source is active, the switch (SW) closes and the alternating current (AC) picked-up by the muscle electrodes flows through the regulation subcircuit to power up the rest of the electronics. A demodulation subcircuit is used to extract information from the HF bursts, and a burst trigger is used to wake up the control unit when it is asleep in-between “Stimulation bursts”.

Mentions: The architecture of the developed circuit prototypes for the implants is depicted in Fig 2. It consists of five main blocks: 1- a demodulator for the amplitude modulation (AM) communication system, 2- a power supply unit, 3- a digital control system (microcontroller), 4- two current sources able to generate biphasic currents and 5- a Schmitt trigger for waking up the digital control unit when a HF burst is detected.


In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses.

Becerra-Fajardo L, Ivorra A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Architecture of the developed circuit prototypes for the microstimulators.The dashed red line represents the flow of stimulating (half-wave) rectified current when control signal 1 (CS1) activates the current source 1. If no current source is active, the switch (SW) closes and the alternating current (AC) picked-up by the muscle electrodes flows through the regulation subcircuit to power up the rest of the electronics. A demodulation subcircuit is used to extract information from the HF bursts, and a burst trigger is used to wake up the control unit when it is asleep in-between “Stimulation bursts”.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493086&req=5

pone.0131666.g002: Architecture of the developed circuit prototypes for the microstimulators.The dashed red line represents the flow of stimulating (half-wave) rectified current when control signal 1 (CS1) activates the current source 1. If no current source is active, the switch (SW) closes and the alternating current (AC) picked-up by the muscle electrodes flows through the regulation subcircuit to power up the rest of the electronics. A demodulation subcircuit is used to extract information from the HF bursts, and a burst trigger is used to wake up the control unit when it is asleep in-between “Stimulation bursts”.
Mentions: The architecture of the developed circuit prototypes for the implants is depicted in Fig 2. It consists of five main blocks: 1- a demodulator for the amplitude modulation (AM) communication system, 2- a power supply unit, 3- a digital control system (microcontroller), 4- two current sources able to generate biphasic currents and 5- a Schmitt trigger for waking up the digital control unit when a HF burst is detected.

Bottom Line: This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant.In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with safety standards both in terms of tissue heating and unwanted electro-stimulation.We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters < 0.5 mm) and not only with controlled stimulation capabilities but also with sensing capabilities for artificial proprioception. We in vivo demonstrate that neuroprostheses composed of addressable microstimulators based on this electrical stimulation method are feasible and can perform controlled charge-balanced electrical stimulation of muscles. We developed miniature external circuit prototypes connected to two bipolar probes that were percutaneously implanted in agonist and antagonist muscles of the hindlimb of an anesthetized rabbit. The electronic implant architecture was able to decode commands that were amplitude modulated on the high frequency (1 MHz) auxiliary current bursts. The devices were capable of independently stimulating the target tissues, accomplishing controlled dorsiflexion and plantarflexion joint movements. In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with safety standards both in terms of tissue heating and unwanted electro-stimulation. We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus