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The Processing of Causal and Hierarchical Relations in Semantic Memory as Revealed by N400 and Frontal Negativity.

Liang X, Chen Q, Lei Y, Li H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500 ms) elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words.Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700 ms) elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words.These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Centre for Brain Function and Psychological Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

ABSTRACT
Most current studies investigating semantic memory have focused on associative (ring-emerald) or taxonomic relations (bird-sparrow). Little is known about the question of how causal relations (virus-epidemic) are stored and accessed in semantic memory. The goal of this study was to examine the processing of causally related, general associatively related and hierarchically related word pairs when participants were required to evaluate whether pairs of words were related in any way. The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500 ms) elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words. Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700 ms) elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words. These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding.

No MeSH data available.


Mean accuracy rates (A, M±SE) and reaction times (B, M±SE) in the different conditions.The accuracy rates for hierarchically related and unrelated words were higher than causally related and associatively related words. However, the difference on RT was only found between hierarchically related and unrelated words.
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pone.0132679.g002: Mean accuracy rates (A, M±SE) and reaction times (B, M±SE) in the different conditions.The accuracy rates for hierarchically related and unrelated words were higher than causally related and associatively related words. However, the difference on RT was only found between hierarchically related and unrelated words.

Mentions: Mean reaction times (RT) and accuracy rates (ACC) were presented in Fig 2 and were analyzed by separate one-way ANOVAs. There was a significant main effect of type of relation on the ACC, F(3, 56) = 7.71, p < .001. Post hoc pair-wise comparison showed that the ACC for hierarchically related (M = .97, SD = .04) were higher than causally related (M = .90, SD = .05) and associatively related (M = .90, SD = .08) words, ps < .002. The ACC for unrelated words (M = .93, SD = .06) was also higher than causally related and associatively related words, ps < .05. No other significant was found among other conditions, ps>.90.


The Processing of Causal and Hierarchical Relations in Semantic Memory as Revealed by N400 and Frontal Negativity.

Liang X, Chen Q, Lei Y, Li H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mean accuracy rates (A, M±SE) and reaction times (B, M±SE) in the different conditions.The accuracy rates for hierarchically related and unrelated words were higher than causally related and associatively related words. However, the difference on RT was only found between hierarchically related and unrelated words.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493067&req=5

pone.0132679.g002: Mean accuracy rates (A, M±SE) and reaction times (B, M±SE) in the different conditions.The accuracy rates for hierarchically related and unrelated words were higher than causally related and associatively related words. However, the difference on RT was only found between hierarchically related and unrelated words.
Mentions: Mean reaction times (RT) and accuracy rates (ACC) were presented in Fig 2 and were analyzed by separate one-way ANOVAs. There was a significant main effect of type of relation on the ACC, F(3, 56) = 7.71, p < .001. Post hoc pair-wise comparison showed that the ACC for hierarchically related (M = .97, SD = .04) were higher than causally related (M = .90, SD = .05) and associatively related (M = .90, SD = .08) words, ps < .002. The ACC for unrelated words (M = .93, SD = .06) was also higher than causally related and associatively related words, ps < .05. No other significant was found among other conditions, ps>.90.

Bottom Line: The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500 ms) elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words.Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700 ms) elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words.These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Centre for Brain Function and Psychological Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

ABSTRACT
Most current studies investigating semantic memory have focused on associative (ring-emerald) or taxonomic relations (bird-sparrow). Little is known about the question of how causal relations (virus-epidemic) are stored and accessed in semantic memory. The goal of this study was to examine the processing of causally related, general associatively related and hierarchically related word pairs when participants were required to evaluate whether pairs of words were related in any way. The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500 ms) elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words. Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700 ms) elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words. These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding.

No MeSH data available.