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Maternal Supplementation with Oligofructose (10%) during Pregnancy and Lactation Leads to Increased Pro-Inflammatory Status of the 21-D-Old Offspring.

Mennitti LV, Oyama LM, de Oliveira JL, Hachul AC, Santamarina AB, de Santana AA, Okuda MH, Ribeiro EB, Oller do Nascimento CM, Pisani LP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring's IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group.Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET.These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós Graduação Interdisciplinar em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Previously, we showed that oligofructose (10%) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased endotoxemia in 21-d-old pups. The present study evaluated the effect of 10% oligofructose diet supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat on the pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring. On the first day of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. Serum TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) was assessed using a specific kit. Protein expression was determined by Western Blotting, and the relative mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction). We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring's IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group. Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET. These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group. In conclusion, supplementing the dam's diet with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of hydrogenated vegetable fat addition, contributes to the increased pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring, possibly through the activation of the TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Gene expression of TLR4 in the RET, (B) Gene expression of IL-6R in the RET and (C) Gene expression of ADIPOR1 in the RET. C—male offspring of dams fed control diet; CF—male offspring of dams fed control diet supplemented with oligofructose; T—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat; TF—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with oligofructose. The number in parentheses refers to the sample value (Fig 4B: TF group presented one outlier sample). Data are means ± SEMs. Results are expressed in arbitrary units, stipulating 100 as the control value. *p≤ 0.05 versus C.
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pone.0132038.g004: (A) Gene expression of TLR4 in the RET, (B) Gene expression of IL-6R in the RET and (C) Gene expression of ADIPOR1 in the RET. C—male offspring of dams fed control diet; CF—male offspring of dams fed control diet supplemented with oligofructose; T—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat; TF—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with oligofructose. The number in parentheses refers to the sample value (Fig 4B: TF group presented one outlier sample). Data are means ± SEMs. Results are expressed in arbitrary units, stipulating 100 as the control value. *p≤ 0.05 versus C.

Mentions: When the mRNA levels of TLR4, IL-6R and ADIPOR1 were analyzed in the offspring’s RET, we observed an IL-6R gene expression increased in the CF (+52.6%; p<0.05), T (+62.6%; p<0.01) and TF (+86.5%; p<0.001) groups compared with C group (Fig 4B). However, gene expression of TLR4 and ADIPOR1 was similar among the studied groups (Fig 4A and 4C, respectively).


Maternal Supplementation with Oligofructose (10%) during Pregnancy and Lactation Leads to Increased Pro-Inflammatory Status of the 21-D-Old Offspring.

Mennitti LV, Oyama LM, de Oliveira JL, Hachul AC, Santamarina AB, de Santana AA, Okuda MH, Ribeiro EB, Oller do Nascimento CM, Pisani LP - PLoS ONE (2015)

(A) Gene expression of TLR4 in the RET, (B) Gene expression of IL-6R in the RET and (C) Gene expression of ADIPOR1 in the RET. C—male offspring of dams fed control diet; CF—male offspring of dams fed control diet supplemented with oligofructose; T—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat; TF—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with oligofructose. The number in parentheses refers to the sample value (Fig 4B: TF group presented one outlier sample). Data are means ± SEMs. Results are expressed in arbitrary units, stipulating 100 as the control value. *p≤ 0.05 versus C.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493056&req=5

pone.0132038.g004: (A) Gene expression of TLR4 in the RET, (B) Gene expression of IL-6R in the RET and (C) Gene expression of ADIPOR1 in the RET. C—male offspring of dams fed control diet; CF—male offspring of dams fed control diet supplemented with oligofructose; T—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat; TF—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with oligofructose. The number in parentheses refers to the sample value (Fig 4B: TF group presented one outlier sample). Data are means ± SEMs. Results are expressed in arbitrary units, stipulating 100 as the control value. *p≤ 0.05 versus C.
Mentions: When the mRNA levels of TLR4, IL-6R and ADIPOR1 were analyzed in the offspring’s RET, we observed an IL-6R gene expression increased in the CF (+52.6%; p<0.05), T (+62.6%; p<0.01) and TF (+86.5%; p<0.001) groups compared with C group (Fig 4B). However, gene expression of TLR4 and ADIPOR1 was similar among the studied groups (Fig 4A and 4C, respectively).

Bottom Line: We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring's IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group.Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET.These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós Graduação Interdisciplinar em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Previously, we showed that oligofructose (10%) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased endotoxemia in 21-d-old pups. The present study evaluated the effect of 10% oligofructose diet supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat on the pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring. On the first day of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. Serum TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) was assessed using a specific kit. Protein expression was determined by Western Blotting, and the relative mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction). We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring's IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group. Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET. These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group. In conclusion, supplementing the dam's diet with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of hydrogenated vegetable fat addition, contributes to the increased pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring, possibly through the activation of the TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus