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Maternal Supplementation with Oligofructose (10%) during Pregnancy and Lactation Leads to Increased Pro-Inflammatory Status of the 21-D-Old Offspring.

Mennitti LV, Oyama LM, de Oliveira JL, Hachul AC, Santamarina AB, de Santana AA, Okuda MH, Ribeiro EB, Oller do Nascimento CM, Pisani LP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring's IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group.Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET.These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós Graduação Interdisciplinar em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Previously, we showed that oligofructose (10%) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased endotoxemia in 21-d-old pups. The present study evaluated the effect of 10% oligofructose diet supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat on the pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring. On the first day of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. Serum TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) was assessed using a specific kit. Protein expression was determined by Western Blotting, and the relative mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction). We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring's IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group. Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET. These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group. In conclusion, supplementing the dam's diet with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of hydrogenated vegetable fat addition, contributes to the increased pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring, possibly through the activation of the TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Gene expression of TLR4 in the liver, (B) Gene expression of TNFR1 in the liver, (C) Gene expression of IL-6R in the liver and (D) Gene expression of ADIPOR2 in the liver. C—male offspring of dams fed control diet; CF—male offspring of dams fed control diet supplemented with oligofructose; T—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat; TF—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with oligofructose. The number in parentheses refers to the sample value (Fig 2A and 2D: CF group presented one outlier sample). Data are means ± SEMs. Results are expressed in arbitrary units, stipulating 100 as the control value. *p≤ 0.05 versus C. &p≤ 0.05 versus CF.
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pone.0132038.g002: (A) Gene expression of TLR4 in the liver, (B) Gene expression of TNFR1 in the liver, (C) Gene expression of IL-6R in the liver and (D) Gene expression of ADIPOR2 in the liver. C—male offspring of dams fed control diet; CF—male offspring of dams fed control diet supplemented with oligofructose; T—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat; TF—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with oligofructose. The number in parentheses refers to the sample value (Fig 2A and 2D: CF group presented one outlier sample). Data are means ± SEMs. Results are expressed in arbitrary units, stipulating 100 as the control value. *p≤ 0.05 versus C. &p≤ 0.05 versus CF.

Mentions: Regarding gene expressions of TLR4, TNFR1, IL-6R and ADIPOR2 in liver, we observed that the IL-6R mRNA levels of CF group was higher than that of the C group (+29.1%; p<0.05) (Fig 2C). The ADIPOR2 mRNA levels in the CF (-61.2%) and T (-33.5%) groups were significantly lower in relation to the C group (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). In parallel, the TF group had increased ADIPOR2 gene expression compared with the CF group (+100.6%; p<0.01) (Fig 2D). However, TLR4 and TNFR1 mRNA levels did not differ among the C, CF, T and TF groups (Fig 2A and 2B, respectively).


Maternal Supplementation with Oligofructose (10%) during Pregnancy and Lactation Leads to Increased Pro-Inflammatory Status of the 21-D-Old Offspring.

Mennitti LV, Oyama LM, de Oliveira JL, Hachul AC, Santamarina AB, de Santana AA, Okuda MH, Ribeiro EB, Oller do Nascimento CM, Pisani LP - PLoS ONE (2015)

(A) Gene expression of TLR4 in the liver, (B) Gene expression of TNFR1 in the liver, (C) Gene expression of IL-6R in the liver and (D) Gene expression of ADIPOR2 in the liver. C—male offspring of dams fed control diet; CF—male offspring of dams fed control diet supplemented with oligofructose; T—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat; TF—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with oligofructose. The number in parentheses refers to the sample value (Fig 2A and 2D: CF group presented one outlier sample). Data are means ± SEMs. Results are expressed in arbitrary units, stipulating 100 as the control value. *p≤ 0.05 versus C. &p≤ 0.05 versus CF.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493056&req=5

pone.0132038.g002: (A) Gene expression of TLR4 in the liver, (B) Gene expression of TNFR1 in the liver, (C) Gene expression of IL-6R in the liver and (D) Gene expression of ADIPOR2 in the liver. C—male offspring of dams fed control diet; CF—male offspring of dams fed control diet supplemented with oligofructose; T—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat; TF—male offspring of dams fed diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with oligofructose. The number in parentheses refers to the sample value (Fig 2A and 2D: CF group presented one outlier sample). Data are means ± SEMs. Results are expressed in arbitrary units, stipulating 100 as the control value. *p≤ 0.05 versus C. &p≤ 0.05 versus CF.
Mentions: Regarding gene expressions of TLR4, TNFR1, IL-6R and ADIPOR2 in liver, we observed that the IL-6R mRNA levels of CF group was higher than that of the C group (+29.1%; p<0.05) (Fig 2C). The ADIPOR2 mRNA levels in the CF (-61.2%) and T (-33.5%) groups were significantly lower in relation to the C group (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). In parallel, the TF group had increased ADIPOR2 gene expression compared with the CF group (+100.6%; p<0.01) (Fig 2D). However, TLR4 and TNFR1 mRNA levels did not differ among the C, CF, T and TF groups (Fig 2A and 2B, respectively).

Bottom Line: We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring's IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group.Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET.These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós Graduação Interdisciplinar em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Previously, we showed that oligofructose (10%) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased endotoxemia in 21-d-old pups. The present study evaluated the effect of 10% oligofructose diet supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat on the pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring. On the first day of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. Serum TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) was assessed using a specific kit. Protein expression was determined by Western Blotting, and the relative mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction). We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring's IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group. Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET. These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group. In conclusion, supplementing the dam's diet with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of hydrogenated vegetable fat addition, contributes to the increased pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring, possibly through the activation of the TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus