Limits...
Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

Bricker-Anthony C, Rex TS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J.Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye.Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reactive microglia are present in Bl/6 and D2 retinas after injury.Low magnification epifluorescence micrographs and high magnification micrographs (insets) of control (A-B), 3 dpi (C-D), 7 dpi (E-F) and 28 dpi (G-H) retinas immunolabeled with Iba1 (green) and DAPI (blue). The scale bar for the low magnification micrographs is 50μm. The scale bar for the inserts is 10μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493046&req=5

pone.0131921.g009: Reactive microglia are present in Bl/6 and D2 retinas after injury.Low magnification epifluorescence micrographs and high magnification micrographs (insets) of control (A-B), 3 dpi (C-D), 7 dpi (E-F) and 28 dpi (G-H) retinas immunolabeled with Iba1 (green) and DAPI (blue). The scale bar for the low magnification micrographs is 50μm. The scale bar for the inserts is 10μm.

Mentions: In the normal Bl/6 (n = 5) and D2 (n = 5) retina, microglia had small somas with dendritic ramifications and were present only in the inner retina (Fig 9A and 9B). In the Bl/6 retina, all changes in microglial morphology after injury were limited to focal areas (e.g. 1–2 sections from each eye). At 3 dpi (n = 3), reactive microglia (enlarged somas with fewer shorter processes) were observed in the ONL and INL and microglial processes extended into the ONL (Fig 9C). At 7 (n = 3) and 28 dpi (n = 5), there were no reactive microglial somas in the ONL, but a few reactive microglia were present in the INL and occasional processes were detected in the ONL (Fig 9E and 9G).


Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

Bricker-Anthony C, Rex TS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Reactive microglia are present in Bl/6 and D2 retinas after injury.Low magnification epifluorescence micrographs and high magnification micrographs (insets) of control (A-B), 3 dpi (C-D), 7 dpi (E-F) and 28 dpi (G-H) retinas immunolabeled with Iba1 (green) and DAPI (blue). The scale bar for the low magnification micrographs is 50μm. The scale bar for the inserts is 10μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493046&req=5

pone.0131921.g009: Reactive microglia are present in Bl/6 and D2 retinas after injury.Low magnification epifluorescence micrographs and high magnification micrographs (insets) of control (A-B), 3 dpi (C-D), 7 dpi (E-F) and 28 dpi (G-H) retinas immunolabeled with Iba1 (green) and DAPI (blue). The scale bar for the low magnification micrographs is 50μm. The scale bar for the inserts is 10μm.
Mentions: In the normal Bl/6 (n = 5) and D2 (n = 5) retina, microglia had small somas with dendritic ramifications and were present only in the inner retina (Fig 9A and 9B). In the Bl/6 retina, all changes in microglial morphology after injury were limited to focal areas (e.g. 1–2 sections from each eye). At 3 dpi (n = 3), reactive microglia (enlarged somas with fewer shorter processes) were observed in the ONL and INL and microglial processes extended into the ONL (Fig 9C). At 7 (n = 3) and 28 dpi (n = 5), there were no reactive microglial somas in the ONL, but a few reactive microglia were present in the INL and occasional processes were detected in the ONL (Fig 9E and 9G).

Bottom Line: Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J.Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye.Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus