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Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

Bricker-Anthony C, Rex TS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J.Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye.Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cell death occurs at 7 and 28 dpi in both strains.Bar graphs show the percentage of retina containing TUNEL-positive cells (A), the density of TUNEL-positive cells in the retina (B) and the density of TUNEL-positive cells within the affected region (C). The bar graphs represent the average ± SEM for each time point and strain.
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pone.0131921.g005: Cell death occurs at 7 and 28 dpi in both strains.Bar graphs show the percentage of retina containing TUNEL-positive cells (A), the density of TUNEL-positive cells in the retina (B) and the density of TUNEL-positive cells within the affected region (C). The bar graphs represent the average ± SEM for each time point and strain.

Mentions: In the Bl/6 eyes post-injury, cell death was first detected at 7 dpi (n = 3) and was limited to small patches in the mid-peripheral and occasionally central retina (Fig 4C and 4E). The majority of the TUNEL-positive nuclei were located in the ONL (Fig 4G). TUNEL-positive cells were present in only 4±2% and 3±1% of the retina, at 7 and 28 dpi (n = 9), respectively (Fig 5A). The density of cell death throughout the entire retina was also low, with 18±11 cells/mm retina and 11±4 cells/mm retina, at 7 and 28 dpi, respectively (Fig 5B). Within areas of cell death (affected regions, Figs 4E and 5A), the density of TUNEL-positive nuclei was 383±179 cells/mm retina at 7 dpi and 373±77 cells/mm retina at 28 dpi (Fig 5C). The comparable density and percent retina affected at both time points suggests ongoing cell death in the Bl/6 from 7 to 28 dpi.


Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

Bricker-Anthony C, Rex TS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cell death occurs at 7 and 28 dpi in both strains.Bar graphs show the percentage of retina containing TUNEL-positive cells (A), the density of TUNEL-positive cells in the retina (B) and the density of TUNEL-positive cells within the affected region (C). The bar graphs represent the average ± SEM for each time point and strain.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493046&req=5

pone.0131921.g005: Cell death occurs at 7 and 28 dpi in both strains.Bar graphs show the percentage of retina containing TUNEL-positive cells (A), the density of TUNEL-positive cells in the retina (B) and the density of TUNEL-positive cells within the affected region (C). The bar graphs represent the average ± SEM for each time point and strain.
Mentions: In the Bl/6 eyes post-injury, cell death was first detected at 7 dpi (n = 3) and was limited to small patches in the mid-peripheral and occasionally central retina (Fig 4C and 4E). The majority of the TUNEL-positive nuclei were located in the ONL (Fig 4G). TUNEL-positive cells were present in only 4±2% and 3±1% of the retina, at 7 and 28 dpi (n = 9), respectively (Fig 5A). The density of cell death throughout the entire retina was also low, with 18±11 cells/mm retina and 11±4 cells/mm retina, at 7 and 28 dpi, respectively (Fig 5B). Within areas of cell death (affected regions, Figs 4E and 5A), the density of TUNEL-positive nuclei was 383±179 cells/mm retina at 7 dpi and 373±77 cells/mm retina at 28 dpi (Fig 5C). The comparable density and percent retina affected at both time points suggests ongoing cell death in the Bl/6 from 7 to 28 dpi.

Bottom Line: Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J.Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye.Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus