Limits...
Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

Bricker-Anthony C, Rex TS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J.Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye.Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Focal retinal and RPE damage occurs in the eyes of both strains post-blast.Neither Bl/6 (A) nor D2 (B) control RPE and retina contains vacuoles or pyknotic nuclei. (C) At 7 dpi, there are grade 3 vacuoles in RPE (arrowheads), as well as small clusters of pyknotic nuclei in the mid-peripheral retina of the Bl/6 eye (arrows). (D) At 3dpi in the D2, grade 5 vacuoles are present in the RPE (arrowheads) and pyknotic nuclei are present in areas of retinal detachment (arrows). (E) At 28 dpi in the Bl/6, RPE vacuoles (arrowhead) are reduced in size to grade 1 and pyknotic nuclei (arrow) are rare. (F) The D2 eye contains grade 2 RPE vacuoles and no pyknotic nuclei at 28 dpi. The scale bars are 5μm in the RPE images, 50μm in the low magnification retina images and 25μm in the high magnification retina images.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493046&req=5

pone.0131921.g003: Focal retinal and RPE damage occurs in the eyes of both strains post-blast.Neither Bl/6 (A) nor D2 (B) control RPE and retina contains vacuoles or pyknotic nuclei. (C) At 7 dpi, there are grade 3 vacuoles in RPE (arrowheads), as well as small clusters of pyknotic nuclei in the mid-peripheral retina of the Bl/6 eye (arrows). (D) At 3dpi in the D2, grade 5 vacuoles are present in the RPE (arrowheads) and pyknotic nuclei are present in areas of retinal detachment (arrows). (E) At 28 dpi in the Bl/6, RPE vacuoles (arrowhead) are reduced in size to grade 1 and pyknotic nuclei (arrow) are rare. (F) The D2 eye contains grade 2 RPE vacuoles and no pyknotic nuclei at 28 dpi. The scale bars are 5μm in the RPE images, 50μm in the low magnification retina images and 25μm in the high magnification retina images.

Mentions: Naïve controls for both strains had healthy RPE with no vacuoles and retinas that lacked pyknotic nuclei or other pathology (Fig 3A and 3B). After blast, while much of the retina looked normal, focal damage was detected in eyes from both strains.


Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

Bricker-Anthony C, Rex TS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Focal retinal and RPE damage occurs in the eyes of both strains post-blast.Neither Bl/6 (A) nor D2 (B) control RPE and retina contains vacuoles or pyknotic nuclei. (C) At 7 dpi, there are grade 3 vacuoles in RPE (arrowheads), as well as small clusters of pyknotic nuclei in the mid-peripheral retina of the Bl/6 eye (arrows). (D) At 3dpi in the D2, grade 5 vacuoles are present in the RPE (arrowheads) and pyknotic nuclei are present in areas of retinal detachment (arrows). (E) At 28 dpi in the Bl/6, RPE vacuoles (arrowhead) are reduced in size to grade 1 and pyknotic nuclei (arrow) are rare. (F) The D2 eye contains grade 2 RPE vacuoles and no pyknotic nuclei at 28 dpi. The scale bars are 5μm in the RPE images, 50μm in the low magnification retina images and 25μm in the high magnification retina images.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493046&req=5

pone.0131921.g003: Focal retinal and RPE damage occurs in the eyes of both strains post-blast.Neither Bl/6 (A) nor D2 (B) control RPE and retina contains vacuoles or pyknotic nuclei. (C) At 7 dpi, there are grade 3 vacuoles in RPE (arrowheads), as well as small clusters of pyknotic nuclei in the mid-peripheral retina of the Bl/6 eye (arrows). (D) At 3dpi in the D2, grade 5 vacuoles are present in the RPE (arrowheads) and pyknotic nuclei are present in areas of retinal detachment (arrows). (E) At 28 dpi in the Bl/6, RPE vacuoles (arrowhead) are reduced in size to grade 1 and pyknotic nuclei (arrow) are rare. (F) The D2 eye contains grade 2 RPE vacuoles and no pyknotic nuclei at 28 dpi. The scale bars are 5μm in the RPE images, 50μm in the low magnification retina images and 25μm in the high magnification retina images.
Mentions: Naïve controls for both strains had healthy RPE with no vacuoles and retinas that lacked pyknotic nuclei or other pathology (Fig 3A and 3B). After blast, while much of the retina looked normal, focal damage was detected in eyes from both strains.

Bottom Line: Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J.Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye.Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus