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Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

Bricker-Anthony C, Rex TS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J.Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye.Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Retinal detachments occur in both Bl/6 and D2 retinas.The Bl/6 (A) and D2 (B) retinas appear normal at baseline in both the b-scan and fundus images. The green line in the fundus image denotes the location of the b-scan. (C) A retinal detachment (arrow) is present at 7 dpi in the Bl/6 retina and is visible on the fundus image as a small, round dark area (red box). Areas of outer segment disruption appear as white, patchy areas on the fundus image (C, arrows). (D) Retinal detachments in a D2 retina at 14 dpi (arrows, red boxes).
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pone.0131921.g002: Retinal detachments occur in both Bl/6 and D2 retinas.The Bl/6 (A) and D2 (B) retinas appear normal at baseline in both the b-scan and fundus images. The green line in the fundus image denotes the location of the b-scan. (C) A retinal detachment (arrow) is present at 7 dpi in the Bl/6 retina and is visible on the fundus image as a small, round dark area (red box). Areas of outer segment disruption appear as white, patchy areas on the fundus image (C, arrows). (D) Retinal detachments in a D2 retina at 14 dpi (arrows, red boxes).

Mentions: In the Bl/6 mouse, disruption of the outer segments (as determined by a bright area on the fundus, (Fig 2C) was observed in 25% of retinae within the mid-periphery at 7 days (n = 8) and in 8% of retinae at 14 (n = 13) and 28 dpi (n = 11). Retinal detachments were detected in 13% and 15% of Bl/6 retinae at 7 and 14 dpi, respectively (Fig 2C). This decreased to 8% of retinas at 28 dpi. Up to 8 retinal detachments per eye were detected and the average height of the retinal detachments was 0.02±0.003mm at all time points.


Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

Bricker-Anthony C, Rex TS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Retinal detachments occur in both Bl/6 and D2 retinas.The Bl/6 (A) and D2 (B) retinas appear normal at baseline in both the b-scan and fundus images. The green line in the fundus image denotes the location of the b-scan. (C) A retinal detachment (arrow) is present at 7 dpi in the Bl/6 retina and is visible on the fundus image as a small, round dark area (red box). Areas of outer segment disruption appear as white, patchy areas on the fundus image (C, arrows). (D) Retinal detachments in a D2 retina at 14 dpi (arrows, red boxes).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493046&req=5

pone.0131921.g002: Retinal detachments occur in both Bl/6 and D2 retinas.The Bl/6 (A) and D2 (B) retinas appear normal at baseline in both the b-scan and fundus images. The green line in the fundus image denotes the location of the b-scan. (C) A retinal detachment (arrow) is present at 7 dpi in the Bl/6 retina and is visible on the fundus image as a small, round dark area (red box). Areas of outer segment disruption appear as white, patchy areas on the fundus image (C, arrows). (D) Retinal detachments in a D2 retina at 14 dpi (arrows, red boxes).
Mentions: In the Bl/6 mouse, disruption of the outer segments (as determined by a bright area on the fundus, (Fig 2C) was observed in 25% of retinae within the mid-periphery at 7 days (n = 8) and in 8% of retinae at 14 (n = 13) and 28 dpi (n = 11). Retinal detachments were detected in 13% and 15% of Bl/6 retinae at 7 and 14 dpi, respectively (Fig 2C). This decreased to 8% of retinas at 28 dpi. Up to 8 retinal detachments per eye were detected and the average height of the retinal detachments was 0.02±0.003mm at all time points.

Bottom Line: Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J.Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye.Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus