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A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

Escudero Duch C, Williams RA, Timm RM, Perez-Tris J, Benitez L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus.Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates.Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology III, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sylvilagus floridanus voucher specimens with typical SfPV horn-like growths.Left, one of the 13 PCR positive specimens; right, specimen not tested to preserve its integrity. Specimens from the University of Kansas Natural History Museum (KU) collection.
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pone.0132172.g002: Sylvilagus floridanus voucher specimens with typical SfPV horn-like growths.Left, one of the 13 PCR positive specimens; right, specimen not tested to preserve its integrity. Specimens from the University of Kansas Natural History Museum (KU) collection.

Mentions: The University of Kansas Natural History Museum (KU), Lawrence, Kansas, USA, contains 1395 voucher specimens of rabbits, jackrabbits, and hares (family Leporidae; 17 species, 3 genera) including several specimens of Sylvilagus with growths symptomatic for SfPV (Fig 2). The aim of this study is to document presence of SfPV in symptomatic KU specimens using molecular techniques, to assess if SfPV is found only in known hosts, or if it has additional natural hosts, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. We highlight methods to increase rates of PV DNA recovery from museum voucher specimens, which may be complicated if viral DNA has degraded due to age or possible chemical exposure. Genetic sequences may reveal whether virus populations have changed during the course of the last century. Museum vouchers can answer a number of questions about SfPV evolution, such as whether few or many SfPV strains exist, whether there is temporal variation in circulating virus strains, if the relative prevalences vary at different times in the past, and whether strains show host specificity.


A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

Escudero Duch C, Williams RA, Timm RM, Perez-Tris J, Benitez L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Sylvilagus floridanus voucher specimens with typical SfPV horn-like growths.Left, one of the 13 PCR positive specimens; right, specimen not tested to preserve its integrity. Specimens from the University of Kansas Natural History Museum (KU) collection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493010&req=5

pone.0132172.g002: Sylvilagus floridanus voucher specimens with typical SfPV horn-like growths.Left, one of the 13 PCR positive specimens; right, specimen not tested to preserve its integrity. Specimens from the University of Kansas Natural History Museum (KU) collection.
Mentions: The University of Kansas Natural History Museum (KU), Lawrence, Kansas, USA, contains 1395 voucher specimens of rabbits, jackrabbits, and hares (family Leporidae; 17 species, 3 genera) including several specimens of Sylvilagus with growths symptomatic for SfPV (Fig 2). The aim of this study is to document presence of SfPV in symptomatic KU specimens using molecular techniques, to assess if SfPV is found only in known hosts, or if it has additional natural hosts, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. We highlight methods to increase rates of PV DNA recovery from museum voucher specimens, which may be complicated if viral DNA has degraded due to age or possible chemical exposure. Genetic sequences may reveal whether virus populations have changed during the course of the last century. Museum vouchers can answer a number of questions about SfPV evolution, such as whether few or many SfPV strains exist, whether there is temporal variation in circulating virus strains, if the relative prevalences vary at different times in the past, and whether strains show host specificity.

Bottom Line: Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus.Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates.Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology III, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus