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A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

Escudero Duch C, Williams RA, Timm RM, Perez-Tris J, Benitez L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus.Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates.Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology III, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of naturally occurring Shope papillomas of cottontail rabbits as described by Shope.Redrawn following Kreider, 1981 [13]. The locality of prior PCR positive samples (pink dots) and 16 of 18 localities of symptomatic samples tested in this study (black dots) for which geographical information was available are shown. Three samples were collected from the same locality (Lexington, Nebraska).
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pone.0132172.g001: Distribution of naturally occurring Shope papillomas of cottontail rabbits as described by Shope.Redrawn following Kreider, 1981 [13]. The locality of prior PCR positive samples (pink dots) and 16 of 18 localities of symptomatic samples tested in this study (black dots) for which geographical information was available are shown. Three samples were collected from the same locality (Lexington, Nebraska).

Mentions: SfPV is an enzootic disease of the genus Sylvilagus estimated, by Shope in 1980 [13], to occur only in the Midwestern USA (Fig 1). It has been lab confirmed from Colorado [10,12]—beyond Shope’s estimated range—Iowa and Kansas [2,11], and Washington State [14]. Symptomatic S. floridanus have been observed in Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, and Oklahoma (RM Timm, unpubl. data). S. floridanus and, to a lesser extent, S. audubonii, from west of the Missouri River, especially Kansas, were widely shipped around the U.S. to provide hunters with additional game species, providing a potential route for SfPV dispersion. It seems likely that millions of rabbits were shipped around the USA in this way; Maryland alone, released 207,000 authorized cottontails between 1922 and 1950 [15]. The only documented occurrence of SfPV west of the Rocky Mountains are in a population of S. floridanus imported to Whidbey Island, Washington, predominantly from Kansas [14]; eastern cottontails did not occur on this island previously, so the SfPV strain found there was almost certainly introduced to the Island along with the eastern cottontails.


A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

Escudero Duch C, Williams RA, Timm RM, Perez-Tris J, Benitez L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Distribution of naturally occurring Shope papillomas of cottontail rabbits as described by Shope.Redrawn following Kreider, 1981 [13]. The locality of prior PCR positive samples (pink dots) and 16 of 18 localities of symptomatic samples tested in this study (black dots) for which geographical information was available are shown. Three samples were collected from the same locality (Lexington, Nebraska).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493010&req=5

pone.0132172.g001: Distribution of naturally occurring Shope papillomas of cottontail rabbits as described by Shope.Redrawn following Kreider, 1981 [13]. The locality of prior PCR positive samples (pink dots) and 16 of 18 localities of symptomatic samples tested in this study (black dots) for which geographical information was available are shown. Three samples were collected from the same locality (Lexington, Nebraska).
Mentions: SfPV is an enzootic disease of the genus Sylvilagus estimated, by Shope in 1980 [13], to occur only in the Midwestern USA (Fig 1). It has been lab confirmed from Colorado [10,12]—beyond Shope’s estimated range—Iowa and Kansas [2,11], and Washington State [14]. Symptomatic S. floridanus have been observed in Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, and Oklahoma (RM Timm, unpubl. data). S. floridanus and, to a lesser extent, S. audubonii, from west of the Missouri River, especially Kansas, were widely shipped around the U.S. to provide hunters with additional game species, providing a potential route for SfPV dispersion. It seems likely that millions of rabbits were shipped around the USA in this way; Maryland alone, released 207,000 authorized cottontails between 1922 and 1950 [15]. The only documented occurrence of SfPV west of the Rocky Mountains are in a population of S. floridanus imported to Whidbey Island, Washington, predominantly from Kansas [14]; eastern cottontails did not occur on this island previously, so the SfPV strain found there was almost certainly introduced to the Island along with the eastern cottontails.

Bottom Line: Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus.Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates.Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology III, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus