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Cortisol and α-Amylase Secretion Patterns between and within Depressed and Non-Depressed Individuals.

Booij SH, Bos EH, Bouwmans ME, van Faassen M, Kema IP, Oldehinkel AJ, de Jonge P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Pair-matched depressed and non-depressed participants (N = 30) collected saliva thrice a day for 30 days, resulting in 90 measurements per individual.Adjusting for lifestyle factors and antidepressant use reduced the associations under study.Findings of studies on this topic should be interpreted with care, because in clinical practice the focus is on individuals instead of groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion regulation, Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Associations between biological stress markers and depression are inconsistent across studies. We assessed whether inter- and intra-individual variability explain these inconsistencies.

Methods: Pair-matched depressed and non-depressed participants (N = 30) collected saliva thrice a day for 30 days, resulting in 90 measurements per individual. The relationships between measures of stress-system function and depression were examined at the group level by means of mixed model analyses, and at the individual level by means of pair-matched comparisons. The analyses were repeated after adjusting for time-varying lifestyle factors by means of time-series regression analyses.

Results: Cortisol and α-amylase levels were higher, the α-amylase/cortisol ratio larger, and the daily cortisol slope steeper in the depressed compared to the non-depressed group. Adjusting for lifestyle factors and antidepressant use reduced the associations under study. In 40%-60% of the matched comparisons, depressed individuals had higher cortisol and α-amylase levels, a larger α-amylase/cortisol ratio, and a steeper daily slope than their non-depressed match, regardless of adjustment.

Conclusions: Our group-level findings were mostly in line with the literature but generalization to individuals appeared troublesome. Findings of studies on this topic should be interpreted with care, because in clinical practice the focus is on individuals instead of groups.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cortisol patterns over 30 days stratified by beep-time (morning, afternoon and evening values).Graphs of pair-matched individuals are placed alongside each other (e.g. D1 and N1). In the corner of the graphs the following information is displayed: identification number (D = depressed, N = non-depressed), gender (F = female, M = male), age in years, BMI, evening beep-time, and, if smoking ‘Sm’. Descriptive statistics at the opposite side of the graphs display m, the mean of the series and s2, the variance of the series.
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pone.0131002.g001: Cortisol patterns over 30 days stratified by beep-time (morning, afternoon and evening values).Graphs of pair-matched individuals are placed alongside each other (e.g. D1 and N1). In the corner of the graphs the following information is displayed: identification number (D = depressed, N = non-depressed), gender (F = female, M = male), age in years, BMI, evening beep-time, and, if smoking ‘Sm’. Descriptive statistics at the opposite side of the graphs display m, the mean of the series and s2, the variance of the series.

Mentions: The individual graphs revealed substantial interindividual differences in levels and variances of cortisol, both within and between the depressed and non-depressed group (Fig 1). Mean levels ranged from 1.8 to 7.2 nmol/l, and variances from 1.7 to 40.4. While in most individuals cortisol fluctuated around a relatively constant mean level, in some individuals the levels significantly increased (N7, N12, N13) or decreased (D1, D7, D13, D14) over the month.


Cortisol and α-Amylase Secretion Patterns between and within Depressed and Non-Depressed Individuals.

Booij SH, Bos EH, Bouwmans ME, van Faassen M, Kema IP, Oldehinkel AJ, de Jonge P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cortisol patterns over 30 days stratified by beep-time (morning, afternoon and evening values).Graphs of pair-matched individuals are placed alongside each other (e.g. D1 and N1). In the corner of the graphs the following information is displayed: identification number (D = depressed, N = non-depressed), gender (F = female, M = male), age in years, BMI, evening beep-time, and, if smoking ‘Sm’. Descriptive statistics at the opposite side of the graphs display m, the mean of the series and s2, the variance of the series.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492984&req=5

pone.0131002.g001: Cortisol patterns over 30 days stratified by beep-time (morning, afternoon and evening values).Graphs of pair-matched individuals are placed alongside each other (e.g. D1 and N1). In the corner of the graphs the following information is displayed: identification number (D = depressed, N = non-depressed), gender (F = female, M = male), age in years, BMI, evening beep-time, and, if smoking ‘Sm’. Descriptive statistics at the opposite side of the graphs display m, the mean of the series and s2, the variance of the series.
Mentions: The individual graphs revealed substantial interindividual differences in levels and variances of cortisol, both within and between the depressed and non-depressed group (Fig 1). Mean levels ranged from 1.8 to 7.2 nmol/l, and variances from 1.7 to 40.4. While in most individuals cortisol fluctuated around a relatively constant mean level, in some individuals the levels significantly increased (N7, N12, N13) or decreased (D1, D7, D13, D14) over the month.

Bottom Line: Pair-matched depressed and non-depressed participants (N = 30) collected saliva thrice a day for 30 days, resulting in 90 measurements per individual.Adjusting for lifestyle factors and antidepressant use reduced the associations under study.Findings of studies on this topic should be interpreted with care, because in clinical practice the focus is on individuals instead of groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion regulation, Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Associations between biological stress markers and depression are inconsistent across studies. We assessed whether inter- and intra-individual variability explain these inconsistencies.

Methods: Pair-matched depressed and non-depressed participants (N = 30) collected saliva thrice a day for 30 days, resulting in 90 measurements per individual. The relationships between measures of stress-system function and depression were examined at the group level by means of mixed model analyses, and at the individual level by means of pair-matched comparisons. The analyses were repeated after adjusting for time-varying lifestyle factors by means of time-series regression analyses.

Results: Cortisol and α-amylase levels were higher, the α-amylase/cortisol ratio larger, and the daily cortisol slope steeper in the depressed compared to the non-depressed group. Adjusting for lifestyle factors and antidepressant use reduced the associations under study. In 40%-60% of the matched comparisons, depressed individuals had higher cortisol and α-amylase levels, a larger α-amylase/cortisol ratio, and a steeper daily slope than their non-depressed match, regardless of adjustment.

Conclusions: Our group-level findings were mostly in line with the literature but generalization to individuals appeared troublesome. Findings of studies on this topic should be interpreted with care, because in clinical practice the focus is on individuals instead of groups.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus