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Nano-Drugs Based on Nano Sterically Stabilized Liposomes for the Treatment of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Turjeman K, Bavli Y, Kizelsztein P, Schilt Y, Allon N, Katzir TB, Sasson E, Raviv U, Ovadia H, Barenholz Y - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: For the NSSL-MPS we also compared the effect of passive targeting alone and of active targeting based on short peptide fragments of ApoE or of β-amyloid.Our results clearly show that for NSSL-MPS, active targeting is not superior to passive targeting.The highly efficacious anti-inflammatory therapeutic feature of these two nano-drugs meets the criteria of disease-modifying drugs and supports further development and evaluation of these nano-drugs as potential therapeutic agents for diseases with an inflammatory component.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Membrane and Liposome Research, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada (IMRIC), The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The present study shows the advantages of liposome-based nano-drugs as a novel strategy of delivering active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that involve neuroinflammation. We used the most common animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), mice experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The main challenges to overcome are the drugs' unfavorable pharmacokinetics and biodistribution, which result in inadequate therapeutic efficacy and in drug toxicity (due to high and repeated dosage). We designed two different liposomal nano-drugs, i.e., nano sterically stabilized liposomes (NSSL), remote loaded with: (a) a "water-soluble" amphipathic weak acid glucocorticosteroid prodrug, methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (MPS) or (b) the amphipathic weak base nitroxide, Tempamine (TMN). For the NSSL-MPS we also compared the effect of passive targeting alone and of active targeting based on short peptide fragments of ApoE or of β-amyloid. Our results clearly show that for NSSL-MPS, active targeting is not superior to passive targeting. For the NSSL-MPS and the NSSL-TMN it was demonstrated that these nano-drugs ameliorate the clinical signs and the pathology of EAE. We have further investigated the MPS nano-drug's therapeutic efficacy and its mechanism of action in both the acute and the adoptive transfer EAE models, as well as optimizing the perfomance of the TMN nano-drug. The highly efficacious anti-inflammatory therapeutic feature of these two nano-drugs meets the criteria of disease-modifying drugs and supports further development and evaluation of these nano-drugs as potential therapeutic agents for diseases with an inflammatory component.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements of NSSL-TMN.(A) Radially integrated background-subtracted scattering data (symbols) of DMPC:DPPC NSSL with and without drug, at 4 and 37°C, as indicated in the figure. Note that the curves are shifted in the intensity axis only for clarity of presentation. The solid curves are the corresponding form-factor models of a stack of infinite slabs with a Gaussian electron density profile along the vertical direction. (B) The electron density profiles of the DMPC:DPPC NSSL bilayers (with and without drug at 4 and 37°C) along the normal direction. The density profiles are obtained by fitting the scattering data to the models (see A) with the software X+, choosing a Gaussian electron density profile for the liposome membrane [40, 41]. The profile is almost symmetric and very slightly affected by the temperature or the presence of the drug. The arrows point to the profile of the inner and outer PEG layers. (C) The integrated scattering patterns as a function of the magnitude of the scattering vector, q, for EPC liposomes. Note that the curves are shifted in the intensity axis for clarity of presentation. The scattering curves of the EPC NSSL with and without drug, at 4 and 37°C are very similar. These curves are analyzed using the software X+, as in (A). The liposome bilayer is described by a Gaussian electron density profile. (D) The electron density profile in the direction normal to the membrane, calculated using the software X+, is presented for EPC NSSL, with and without drug at 4 and 37°C. The density profile of the membrane is almost unaffected by the temperature or the presence of the drug. Notice that this profile is asymmetric, suggesting that the inner and the outer PEG layers (pointed by an arrow) of the liposome are different.
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pone.0130442.g003: Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements of NSSL-TMN.(A) Radially integrated background-subtracted scattering data (symbols) of DMPC:DPPC NSSL with and without drug, at 4 and 37°C, as indicated in the figure. Note that the curves are shifted in the intensity axis only for clarity of presentation. The solid curves are the corresponding form-factor models of a stack of infinite slabs with a Gaussian electron density profile along the vertical direction. (B) The electron density profiles of the DMPC:DPPC NSSL bilayers (with and without drug at 4 and 37°C) along the normal direction. The density profiles are obtained by fitting the scattering data to the models (see A) with the software X+, choosing a Gaussian electron density profile for the liposome membrane [40, 41]. The profile is almost symmetric and very slightly affected by the temperature or the presence of the drug. The arrows point to the profile of the inner and outer PEG layers. (C) The integrated scattering patterns as a function of the magnitude of the scattering vector, q, for EPC liposomes. Note that the curves are shifted in the intensity axis for clarity of presentation. The scattering curves of the EPC NSSL with and without drug, at 4 and 37°C are very similar. These curves are analyzed using the software X+, as in (A). The liposome bilayer is described by a Gaussian electron density profile. (D) The electron density profile in the direction normal to the membrane, calculated using the software X+, is presented for EPC NSSL, with and without drug at 4 and 37°C. The density profile of the membrane is almost unaffected by the temperature or the presence of the drug. Notice that this profile is asymmetric, suggesting that the inner and the outer PEG layers (pointed by an arrow) of the liposome are different.

Mentions: Fig 3A and 3Bshow the scattering curves and the electron density (ED) profiles of NSSL membrane, loaded and unloaded with TMN, at 37 and 4°C. Before fitting the scattering curves, we subtracted the background scattering (due to the solvent, the capillary, and the presence of other dissolved molecules). As in our earlier studies, for background we used a power law [40] to account for the contribution of concentration fluctuations in the sample [47].


Nano-Drugs Based on Nano Sterically Stabilized Liposomes for the Treatment of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Turjeman K, Bavli Y, Kizelsztein P, Schilt Y, Allon N, Katzir TB, Sasson E, Raviv U, Ovadia H, Barenholz Y - PLoS ONE (2015)

Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements of NSSL-TMN.(A) Radially integrated background-subtracted scattering data (symbols) of DMPC:DPPC NSSL with and without drug, at 4 and 37°C, as indicated in the figure. Note that the curves are shifted in the intensity axis only for clarity of presentation. The solid curves are the corresponding form-factor models of a stack of infinite slabs with a Gaussian electron density profile along the vertical direction. (B) The electron density profiles of the DMPC:DPPC NSSL bilayers (with and without drug at 4 and 37°C) along the normal direction. The density profiles are obtained by fitting the scattering data to the models (see A) with the software X+, choosing a Gaussian electron density profile for the liposome membrane [40, 41]. The profile is almost symmetric and very slightly affected by the temperature or the presence of the drug. The arrows point to the profile of the inner and outer PEG layers. (C) The integrated scattering patterns as a function of the magnitude of the scattering vector, q, for EPC liposomes. Note that the curves are shifted in the intensity axis for clarity of presentation. The scattering curves of the EPC NSSL with and without drug, at 4 and 37°C are very similar. These curves are analyzed using the software X+, as in (A). The liposome bilayer is described by a Gaussian electron density profile. (D) The electron density profile in the direction normal to the membrane, calculated using the software X+, is presented for EPC NSSL, with and without drug at 4 and 37°C. The density profile of the membrane is almost unaffected by the temperature or the presence of the drug. Notice that this profile is asymmetric, suggesting that the inner and the outer PEG layers (pointed by an arrow) of the liposome are different.
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pone.0130442.g003: Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements of NSSL-TMN.(A) Radially integrated background-subtracted scattering data (symbols) of DMPC:DPPC NSSL with and without drug, at 4 and 37°C, as indicated in the figure. Note that the curves are shifted in the intensity axis only for clarity of presentation. The solid curves are the corresponding form-factor models of a stack of infinite slabs with a Gaussian electron density profile along the vertical direction. (B) The electron density profiles of the DMPC:DPPC NSSL bilayers (with and without drug at 4 and 37°C) along the normal direction. The density profiles are obtained by fitting the scattering data to the models (see A) with the software X+, choosing a Gaussian electron density profile for the liposome membrane [40, 41]. The profile is almost symmetric and very slightly affected by the temperature or the presence of the drug. The arrows point to the profile of the inner and outer PEG layers. (C) The integrated scattering patterns as a function of the magnitude of the scattering vector, q, for EPC liposomes. Note that the curves are shifted in the intensity axis for clarity of presentation. The scattering curves of the EPC NSSL with and without drug, at 4 and 37°C are very similar. These curves are analyzed using the software X+, as in (A). The liposome bilayer is described by a Gaussian electron density profile. (D) The electron density profile in the direction normal to the membrane, calculated using the software X+, is presented for EPC NSSL, with and without drug at 4 and 37°C. The density profile of the membrane is almost unaffected by the temperature or the presence of the drug. Notice that this profile is asymmetric, suggesting that the inner and the outer PEG layers (pointed by an arrow) of the liposome are different.
Mentions: Fig 3A and 3Bshow the scattering curves and the electron density (ED) profiles of NSSL membrane, loaded and unloaded with TMN, at 37 and 4°C. Before fitting the scattering curves, we subtracted the background scattering (due to the solvent, the capillary, and the presence of other dissolved molecules). As in our earlier studies, for background we used a power law [40] to account for the contribution of concentration fluctuations in the sample [47].

Bottom Line: For the NSSL-MPS we also compared the effect of passive targeting alone and of active targeting based on short peptide fragments of ApoE or of β-amyloid.Our results clearly show that for NSSL-MPS, active targeting is not superior to passive targeting.The highly efficacious anti-inflammatory therapeutic feature of these two nano-drugs meets the criteria of disease-modifying drugs and supports further development and evaluation of these nano-drugs as potential therapeutic agents for diseases with an inflammatory component.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Membrane and Liposome Research, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada (IMRIC), The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The present study shows the advantages of liposome-based nano-drugs as a novel strategy of delivering active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that involve neuroinflammation. We used the most common animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), mice experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The main challenges to overcome are the drugs' unfavorable pharmacokinetics and biodistribution, which result in inadequate therapeutic efficacy and in drug toxicity (due to high and repeated dosage). We designed two different liposomal nano-drugs, i.e., nano sterically stabilized liposomes (NSSL), remote loaded with: (a) a "water-soluble" amphipathic weak acid glucocorticosteroid prodrug, methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (MPS) or (b) the amphipathic weak base nitroxide, Tempamine (TMN). For the NSSL-MPS we also compared the effect of passive targeting alone and of active targeting based on short peptide fragments of ApoE or of β-amyloid. Our results clearly show that for NSSL-MPS, active targeting is not superior to passive targeting. For the NSSL-MPS and the NSSL-TMN it was demonstrated that these nano-drugs ameliorate the clinical signs and the pathology of EAE. We have further investigated the MPS nano-drug's therapeutic efficacy and its mechanism of action in both the acute and the adoptive transfer EAE models, as well as optimizing the perfomance of the TMN nano-drug. The highly efficacious anti-inflammatory therapeutic feature of these two nano-drugs meets the criteria of disease-modifying drugs and supports further development and evaluation of these nano-drugs as potential therapeutic agents for diseases with an inflammatory component.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus