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The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

Goldberg BE, Mongodin EF, Jones CE, Chung M, Fraser CM, Tate A, Zeichner SL - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient.We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations.The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better characterize the oral microbiome in children and those with poorly-controlled HIV infections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

NMDS Coordinate Plots.NMDS plots were generated using OTU abundance data using the Vegan package in R. Panel A and B contain coordinates labeled by HIV status and sample location respectively, while Panel C and D contain coordinates labeled by dentition status and patient ID.
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pone.0131615.g005: NMDS Coordinate Plots.NMDS plots were generated using OTU abundance data using the Vegan package in R. Panel A and B contain coordinates labeled by HIV status and sample location respectively, while Panel C and D contain coordinates labeled by dentition status and patient ID.

Mentions: Fig 1 compares Shannon diversity scores between samples, HIV status and patients. Samples taken from teeth tended to have higher diversity scores, but teeth had fewer samples compared to saliva and mucosa (Fig 1A). Diversity between the HIV and healthy cohorts did not vary significantly (Fig 1B) with a p-value of 0.9898. Individual patients were also compared, as shown in Fig 1C, and discussed above. NMDS and Principle Coordinate plots were generated using OTU abundance data (Fig 4). No significant groupings were identified between sample location, HIV status or primary versus permanent teeth. Samples taken from the same patient did seem to cluster together, however there was significant overlap between patients. Principal coordinate plots were also generated from both Bray-Curtis scores and weighted and unweighted UniFrac scores, but no grouping differences were identified between individual patients, HIV status or sample location including primary versus permanent teeth (Fig 5).


The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

Goldberg BE, Mongodin EF, Jones CE, Chung M, Fraser CM, Tate A, Zeichner SL - PLoS ONE (2015)

NMDS Coordinate Plots.NMDS plots were generated using OTU abundance data using the Vegan package in R. Panel A and B contain coordinates labeled by HIV status and sample location respectively, while Panel C and D contain coordinates labeled by dentition status and patient ID.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492946&req=5

pone.0131615.g005: NMDS Coordinate Plots.NMDS plots were generated using OTU abundance data using the Vegan package in R. Panel A and B contain coordinates labeled by HIV status and sample location respectively, while Panel C and D contain coordinates labeled by dentition status and patient ID.
Mentions: Fig 1 compares Shannon diversity scores between samples, HIV status and patients. Samples taken from teeth tended to have higher diversity scores, but teeth had fewer samples compared to saliva and mucosa (Fig 1A). Diversity between the HIV and healthy cohorts did not vary significantly (Fig 1B) with a p-value of 0.9898. Individual patients were also compared, as shown in Fig 1C, and discussed above. NMDS and Principle Coordinate plots were generated using OTU abundance data (Fig 4). No significant groupings were identified between sample location, HIV status or primary versus permanent teeth. Samples taken from the same patient did seem to cluster together, however there was significant overlap between patients. Principal coordinate plots were also generated from both Bray-Curtis scores and weighted and unweighted UniFrac scores, but no grouping differences were identified between individual patients, HIV status or sample location including primary versus permanent teeth (Fig 5).

Bottom Line: Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient.We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations.The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better characterize the oral microbiome in children and those with poorly-controlled HIV infections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus