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The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

Goldberg BE, Mongodin EF, Jones CE, Chung M, Fraser CM, Tate A, Zeichner SL - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient.We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations.The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better characterize the oral microbiome in children and those with poorly-controlled HIV infections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative Abundance Data at the Phylum level.All samples with OTUs identified to the phylum level were summarized as bar charts of relative abundance. Relative abundance varied by patient (Panel A) and sample site (Panel B). Panels A and B contain all samples available for each individual patient and sampling sites. The OTU count for each phyla from HIV positive and negative samples were summed in Panel C, demonstrating increased abundance of Firmicutes in HIV positive patients. All tooth samples are supragingival.
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pone.0131615.g002: Relative Abundance Data at the Phylum level.All samples with OTUs identified to the phylum level were summarized as bar charts of relative abundance. Relative abundance varied by patient (Panel A) and sample site (Panel B). Panels A and B contain all samples available for each individual patient and sampling sites. The OTU count for each phyla from HIV positive and negative samples were summed in Panel C, demonstrating increased abundance of Firmicutes in HIV positive patients. All tooth samples are supragingival.

Mentions: Relative phylum abundance data from each sample were analyzed as parts of three cohorts stratified by: (1) individual patients (2) sample location and (3) HIV status. Fig 2 contains relative abundance data for each cohort. Uneven enrollment between the oral sampling locations compromised comparison between patients and locations (Table 5). The total number of samples obtained for each patient was affected by their underlying plaque quantities. Some samples could not be obtained due to low plaque quantity. HIV patients averaged 10.5 samples per patient, while healthy patients averaged 5 samples per patient. Individual patients had variable proportions of different phyla, but it is unclear if differences in relative abundance are due to true inter-individual variability in the oral microbiota or sampling bias (Fig 2A). Generally, samples from saliva or mucosal surfaces appeared to have a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes phyla. Samples from teeth had a greater variety of different phyla, with phylum TM7 and Spirochaetes appearing in some samples (Fig 2B). The relative abundances of the phyla from tooth samples also appear more evenly proportioned, particularly when compared to the Firmicutes dominance of the mucosal surfaces. Between all HIV infected patients and all healthy patients, no statistically significant differences between the relative abundances of different phyla were appreciated. Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, with Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounting for the next most prevalent phyla (Fig 2C).


The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

Goldberg BE, Mongodin EF, Jones CE, Chung M, Fraser CM, Tate A, Zeichner SL - PLoS ONE (2015)

Relative Abundance Data at the Phylum level.All samples with OTUs identified to the phylum level were summarized as bar charts of relative abundance. Relative abundance varied by patient (Panel A) and sample site (Panel B). Panels A and B contain all samples available for each individual patient and sampling sites. The OTU count for each phyla from HIV positive and negative samples were summed in Panel C, demonstrating increased abundance of Firmicutes in HIV positive patients. All tooth samples are supragingival.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492946&req=5

pone.0131615.g002: Relative Abundance Data at the Phylum level.All samples with OTUs identified to the phylum level were summarized as bar charts of relative abundance. Relative abundance varied by patient (Panel A) and sample site (Panel B). Panels A and B contain all samples available for each individual patient and sampling sites. The OTU count for each phyla from HIV positive and negative samples were summed in Panel C, demonstrating increased abundance of Firmicutes in HIV positive patients. All tooth samples are supragingival.
Mentions: Relative phylum abundance data from each sample were analyzed as parts of three cohorts stratified by: (1) individual patients (2) sample location and (3) HIV status. Fig 2 contains relative abundance data for each cohort. Uneven enrollment between the oral sampling locations compromised comparison between patients and locations (Table 5). The total number of samples obtained for each patient was affected by their underlying plaque quantities. Some samples could not be obtained due to low plaque quantity. HIV patients averaged 10.5 samples per patient, while healthy patients averaged 5 samples per patient. Individual patients had variable proportions of different phyla, but it is unclear if differences in relative abundance are due to true inter-individual variability in the oral microbiota or sampling bias (Fig 2A). Generally, samples from saliva or mucosal surfaces appeared to have a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes phyla. Samples from teeth had a greater variety of different phyla, with phylum TM7 and Spirochaetes appearing in some samples (Fig 2B). The relative abundances of the phyla from tooth samples also appear more evenly proportioned, particularly when compared to the Firmicutes dominance of the mucosal surfaces. Between all HIV infected patients and all healthy patients, no statistically significant differences between the relative abundances of different phyla were appreciated. Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, with Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounting for the next most prevalent phyla (Fig 2C).

Bottom Line: Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient.We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations.The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better characterize the oral microbiome in children and those with poorly-controlled HIV infections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus