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Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nigerian Blood Donors and Hepatitis B Virus Transmission Risks.

Oluyinka OO, Tong HV, Bui Tien S, Fagbami AH, Adekanle O, Ojurongbe O, Bock CT, Kremsner PG, Velavan TP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) characterized by the absence of detectable HBsAg remains a potential threat in blood safety.The L217R polymorphism in the reverse transcriptase domain of the HBV polymerase gene was observed significantly higher in OBI compared with HBsAg positive individuals (P<0.0001).High incidence of OBI is relevant in high endemic areas worldwide and is a general burden in blood safety.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Deparment of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

Background: Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) characterized by the absence of detectable HBsAg remains a potential threat in blood safety. We investigated the actual prevalence, viral factors and genotype of OBI infections in Nigerian blood donors.

Methods: Serum collected from two blood banks were reconfirmed as HBsAg seronegative by ELISA. Forty HBsAg positive samples were employed as controls. HBV-DNA was amplified from all donors and viral loads were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Antibodies to the HBV core, surface and HBe antigen (anti-HBc,anti-HBs,HBeAg) were measured. The PreS/S and PreC/C regions of the HBV genome were sequenced.

Results: Of the 429 blood donors, 72(17%) were confirmed as OBI by DNA detection in different reference labs and excluded the concern of possible contamination. Of the 72 OBI samples, 48(67%) were positive for anti-HBc, 25(35%) positive for anti-HBs, and 2(3%) positive for HBeAg. Of the 72 OBI samples, 31(43%) were seropositive for either anti-HBc, anti-HBs or HBeAg, 21 (30%) positive for both anti-HBc and anti-HBs,one positive for both anti-HBc and HBeAg. None of the OBI samples were positive for all three serological markers. The viral load was <50copies/ml in the OBI samples and genotype E was predominant. The L217R polymorphism in the reverse transcriptase domain of the HBV polymerase gene was observed significantly higher in OBI compared with HBsAg positive individuals (P<0.0001).

Conclusion: High incidence of OBI is relevant in high endemic areas worldwide and is a general burden in blood safety. This study signifies the high prevalence of OBI and proposes blood donor samples in Nigeria should be pre-tested for OBI by nucleic acid testing (NAT) and/or anti-HBc prior to transfusion to minimize the HBV infection risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reconstructed phylogenetic tree of preC/C region in the HBV genome.Phylogenetic analysis inferred from distance analysis (Kimura 2 parameters model) and neighbor-joining reconstruction from preC/C region of OBI sample sequences showing that the HBV sequences mostly clustered in the HBV genotype E branch. HBV sequences are referred to as “number”, i.e., “017”. The HBV sequences were compared to HBV reference sequences gathering the 8 HBV genotypes (NCBI-Genbank accession numbers are denoted). The numbers at the nodes indicate bootstrapping values in percentage of 1000 replicates.
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pone.0131912.g002: Reconstructed phylogenetic tree of preC/C region in the HBV genome.Phylogenetic analysis inferred from distance analysis (Kimura 2 parameters model) and neighbor-joining reconstruction from preC/C region of OBI sample sequences showing that the HBV sequences mostly clustered in the HBV genotype E branch. HBV sequences are referred to as “number”, i.e., “017”. The HBV sequences were compared to HBV reference sequences gathering the 8 HBV genotypes (NCBI-Genbank accession numbers are denoted). The numbers at the nodes indicate bootstrapping values in percentage of 1000 replicates.

Mentions: In addition, 50 of the 72 OBI samples were sequenced for preC/C region and a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed (Fig 2). The nucleotide diversity in preS/S and preC/C regions of OBI samples demonstrated that the samples were specific isolates and excludes the probability of contaminants. The phylogenetic tree of preC/C corroborated 47 OBI samples belonged to HBV genotype E. In addition, the preC/C phylogenetic tree showed the similarity between HBV genotype E and D in this region by classifying all OBI samples. HBV genotype E and D in a group with 84% bootstrap value supported. Two of the three non HBV genotype E OBI samples (sample 452 and 476) belong to HBV genotype D with 86% bootstrap iterations. Sample 608 has its own clade separated from HBV genotype D and E branch. Interestingly, 50 of the preC/Csequences revealed that four OBI strains carry the PreC stop codon W28* mutant at position 1896.


Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nigerian Blood Donors and Hepatitis B Virus Transmission Risks.

Oluyinka OO, Tong HV, Bui Tien S, Fagbami AH, Adekanle O, Ojurongbe O, Bock CT, Kremsner PG, Velavan TP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Reconstructed phylogenetic tree of preC/C region in the HBV genome.Phylogenetic analysis inferred from distance analysis (Kimura 2 parameters model) and neighbor-joining reconstruction from preC/C region of OBI sample sequences showing that the HBV sequences mostly clustered in the HBV genotype E branch. HBV sequences are referred to as “number”, i.e., “017”. The HBV sequences were compared to HBV reference sequences gathering the 8 HBV genotypes (NCBI-Genbank accession numbers are denoted). The numbers at the nodes indicate bootstrapping values in percentage of 1000 replicates.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492924&req=5

pone.0131912.g002: Reconstructed phylogenetic tree of preC/C region in the HBV genome.Phylogenetic analysis inferred from distance analysis (Kimura 2 parameters model) and neighbor-joining reconstruction from preC/C region of OBI sample sequences showing that the HBV sequences mostly clustered in the HBV genotype E branch. HBV sequences are referred to as “number”, i.e., “017”. The HBV sequences were compared to HBV reference sequences gathering the 8 HBV genotypes (NCBI-Genbank accession numbers are denoted). The numbers at the nodes indicate bootstrapping values in percentage of 1000 replicates.
Mentions: In addition, 50 of the 72 OBI samples were sequenced for preC/C region and a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed (Fig 2). The nucleotide diversity in preS/S and preC/C regions of OBI samples demonstrated that the samples were specific isolates and excludes the probability of contaminants. The phylogenetic tree of preC/C corroborated 47 OBI samples belonged to HBV genotype E. In addition, the preC/C phylogenetic tree showed the similarity between HBV genotype E and D in this region by classifying all OBI samples. HBV genotype E and D in a group with 84% bootstrap value supported. Two of the three non HBV genotype E OBI samples (sample 452 and 476) belong to HBV genotype D with 86% bootstrap iterations. Sample 608 has its own clade separated from HBV genotype D and E branch. Interestingly, 50 of the preC/Csequences revealed that four OBI strains carry the PreC stop codon W28* mutant at position 1896.

Bottom Line: Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) characterized by the absence of detectable HBsAg remains a potential threat in blood safety.The L217R polymorphism in the reverse transcriptase domain of the HBV polymerase gene was observed significantly higher in OBI compared with HBsAg positive individuals (P<0.0001).High incidence of OBI is relevant in high endemic areas worldwide and is a general burden in blood safety.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Deparment of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

Background: Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) characterized by the absence of detectable HBsAg remains a potential threat in blood safety. We investigated the actual prevalence, viral factors and genotype of OBI infections in Nigerian blood donors.

Methods: Serum collected from two blood banks were reconfirmed as HBsAg seronegative by ELISA. Forty HBsAg positive samples were employed as controls. HBV-DNA was amplified from all donors and viral loads were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Antibodies to the HBV core, surface and HBe antigen (anti-HBc,anti-HBs,HBeAg) were measured. The PreS/S and PreC/C regions of the HBV genome were sequenced.

Results: Of the 429 blood donors, 72(17%) were confirmed as OBI by DNA detection in different reference labs and excluded the concern of possible contamination. Of the 72 OBI samples, 48(67%) were positive for anti-HBc, 25(35%) positive for anti-HBs, and 2(3%) positive for HBeAg. Of the 72 OBI samples, 31(43%) were seropositive for either anti-HBc, anti-HBs or HBeAg, 21 (30%) positive for both anti-HBc and anti-HBs,one positive for both anti-HBc and HBeAg. None of the OBI samples were positive for all three serological markers. The viral load was <50copies/ml in the OBI samples and genotype E was predominant. The L217R polymorphism in the reverse transcriptase domain of the HBV polymerase gene was observed significantly higher in OBI compared with HBsAg positive individuals (P<0.0001).

Conclusion: High incidence of OBI is relevant in high endemic areas worldwide and is a general burden in blood safety. This study signifies the high prevalence of OBI and proposes blood donor samples in Nigeria should be pre-tested for OBI by nucleic acid testing (NAT) and/or anti-HBc prior to transfusion to minimize the HBV infection risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus