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Targeting DDX3 with a small molecule inhibitor for lung cancer therapy.

Bol GM, Vesuna F, Xie M, Zeng J, Aziz K, Gandhi N, Levine A, Irving A, Korz D, Tantravedi S, Heerma van Voss MR, Gabrielson K, Bordt EA, Polster BM, Cope L, van der Groep P, Kondaskar A, Rudek MA, Hosmane RS, van der Wall E, van Diest PJ, Tran PT, Raman V - EMBO Mol Med (2015)

Bottom Line: We designed a first-in-class small molecule inhibitor, RK-33, which binds to DDX3 and abrogates its activity.Mechanistically, loss of DDX3 function either by shRNA or by RK-33 impaired Wnt signaling through disruption of the DDX3-β-catenin axis and inhibited non-homologous end joining-the major DNA repair pathway in mammalian somatic cells.Overall, inhibition of DDX3 by RK-33 promotes tumor regression, thus providing a compelling argument to develop DDX3 inhibitors for lung cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Toxicity studies of RK-33 in miceFollowing injection of 20 mg/kg of RK-33, twice a week for 7 weeks, extensive histopathological examination was carried out following necropsy. Identical patterns were observed both in the control and in the treated mice (n = 2). Samples were stained with H&E. Scale bar is 50 μm.Pharmacokinetics of RK-33 in SCID mice at various time intervals. Results are mean ± SD from 5 mice. LC-MS/MS method was used to determine concentration of RK-33 in mouse plasma and tissue.Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was performed to determine different metabolites of RK-33.RK-33 and metabolites characterized by LC-MS/MS in human liver microsomes using the scan mode function of the LC-MS/MS.HAPI cells were treated with RK-33 (10 μM), HA14-1 (25 μM), or DMSO vehicle, followed by oligomycin (oligo, 0.5 μg/ml), FCCP (3 μM), and antimycin A (AA, 1 μM) while oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured. Pyruvate (10 mM) was added in combination with FCCP to ensure that substrate supply was not rate-limiting for maximal OCR. Data are mean ± SD from 2 to 3 wells and representative of independent experiments performed with two different HAPI passages. OCR is baseline-normalized to the point prior to drug or vehicle addition.HAPI microglial cells were incubated for 1 h in glucose-free XF24 assay medium that was supplemented with 2-deoxyglucose (50 mM) and pyruvate (10 mM). RK-33 (10 μM), oligomycin (0.5 μg/ml), or vehicle control was additionally present as indicated. Results are mean ± SD from 12 replicates pooled from experiments using two consecutive passages. Significance was assessed by two-sided, unpaired t-test.
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fig05: Toxicity studies of RK-33 in miceFollowing injection of 20 mg/kg of RK-33, twice a week for 7 weeks, extensive histopathological examination was carried out following necropsy. Identical patterns were observed both in the control and in the treated mice (n = 2). Samples were stained with H&E. Scale bar is 50 μm.Pharmacokinetics of RK-33 in SCID mice at various time intervals. Results are mean ± SD from 5 mice. LC-MS/MS method was used to determine concentration of RK-33 in mouse plasma and tissue.Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was performed to determine different metabolites of RK-33.RK-33 and metabolites characterized by LC-MS/MS in human liver microsomes using the scan mode function of the LC-MS/MS.HAPI cells were treated with RK-33 (10 μM), HA14-1 (25 μM), or DMSO vehicle, followed by oligomycin (oligo, 0.5 μg/ml), FCCP (3 μM), and antimycin A (AA, 1 μM) while oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured. Pyruvate (10 mM) was added in combination with FCCP to ensure that substrate supply was not rate-limiting for maximal OCR. Data are mean ± SD from 2 to 3 wells and representative of independent experiments performed with two different HAPI passages. OCR is baseline-normalized to the point prior to drug or vehicle addition.HAPI microglial cells were incubated for 1 h in glucose-free XF24 assay medium that was supplemented with 2-deoxyglucose (50 mM) and pyruvate (10 mM). RK-33 (10 μM), oligomycin (0.5 μg/ml), or vehicle control was additionally present as indicated. Results are mean ± SD from 12 replicates pooled from experiments using two consecutive passages. Significance was assessed by two-sided, unpaired t-test.

Mentions: Prior to initiating the animal experiments, we carried out toxicology, biodistribution, and metabolism assessments of RK-33. Toxicology studies indicated that RK-33, at the dose used, was non-toxic in SCID mice. As shown in Fig5A, histopathology of the different tissues from control (DMSO) and RK-33-treated mice did not exhibit any discernable morphological changes. Biodistribution studies revealed that RK-33 was able to accumulate at therapeutic dose in various organs, thus enhancing the clinical relevance for the use of RK-33 as chemotherapeutic agent (Fig5B). Moreover, NADPH-independent and NADPH-dependent metabolism was observed when RK-33 was incubated with human liver and mouse microsomes (Fig5C). Subsequent chromatography analysis identified three potential metabolites (Fig5D). In addition, liver and kidney function tests, as well as the blood and lipid profiles, were not altered between the control and RK-33-treated groups (Table2).


Targeting DDX3 with a small molecule inhibitor for lung cancer therapy.

Bol GM, Vesuna F, Xie M, Zeng J, Aziz K, Gandhi N, Levine A, Irving A, Korz D, Tantravedi S, Heerma van Voss MR, Gabrielson K, Bordt EA, Polster BM, Cope L, van der Groep P, Kondaskar A, Rudek MA, Hosmane RS, van der Wall E, van Diest PJ, Tran PT, Raman V - EMBO Mol Med (2015)

Toxicity studies of RK-33 in miceFollowing injection of 20 mg/kg of RK-33, twice a week for 7 weeks, extensive histopathological examination was carried out following necropsy. Identical patterns were observed both in the control and in the treated mice (n = 2). Samples were stained with H&E. Scale bar is 50 μm.Pharmacokinetics of RK-33 in SCID mice at various time intervals. Results are mean ± SD from 5 mice. LC-MS/MS method was used to determine concentration of RK-33 in mouse plasma and tissue.Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was performed to determine different metabolites of RK-33.RK-33 and metabolites characterized by LC-MS/MS in human liver microsomes using the scan mode function of the LC-MS/MS.HAPI cells were treated with RK-33 (10 μM), HA14-1 (25 μM), or DMSO vehicle, followed by oligomycin (oligo, 0.5 μg/ml), FCCP (3 μM), and antimycin A (AA, 1 μM) while oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured. Pyruvate (10 mM) was added in combination with FCCP to ensure that substrate supply was not rate-limiting for maximal OCR. Data are mean ± SD from 2 to 3 wells and representative of independent experiments performed with two different HAPI passages. OCR is baseline-normalized to the point prior to drug or vehicle addition.HAPI microglial cells were incubated for 1 h in glucose-free XF24 assay medium that was supplemented with 2-deoxyglucose (50 mM) and pyruvate (10 mM). RK-33 (10 μM), oligomycin (0.5 μg/ml), or vehicle control was additionally present as indicated. Results are mean ± SD from 12 replicates pooled from experiments using two consecutive passages. Significance was assessed by two-sided, unpaired t-test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492822&req=5

fig05: Toxicity studies of RK-33 in miceFollowing injection of 20 mg/kg of RK-33, twice a week for 7 weeks, extensive histopathological examination was carried out following necropsy. Identical patterns were observed both in the control and in the treated mice (n = 2). Samples were stained with H&E. Scale bar is 50 μm.Pharmacokinetics of RK-33 in SCID mice at various time intervals. Results are mean ± SD from 5 mice. LC-MS/MS method was used to determine concentration of RK-33 in mouse plasma and tissue.Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was performed to determine different metabolites of RK-33.RK-33 and metabolites characterized by LC-MS/MS in human liver microsomes using the scan mode function of the LC-MS/MS.HAPI cells were treated with RK-33 (10 μM), HA14-1 (25 μM), or DMSO vehicle, followed by oligomycin (oligo, 0.5 μg/ml), FCCP (3 μM), and antimycin A (AA, 1 μM) while oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured. Pyruvate (10 mM) was added in combination with FCCP to ensure that substrate supply was not rate-limiting for maximal OCR. Data are mean ± SD from 2 to 3 wells and representative of independent experiments performed with two different HAPI passages. OCR is baseline-normalized to the point prior to drug or vehicle addition.HAPI microglial cells were incubated for 1 h in glucose-free XF24 assay medium that was supplemented with 2-deoxyglucose (50 mM) and pyruvate (10 mM). RK-33 (10 μM), oligomycin (0.5 μg/ml), or vehicle control was additionally present as indicated. Results are mean ± SD from 12 replicates pooled from experiments using two consecutive passages. Significance was assessed by two-sided, unpaired t-test.
Mentions: Prior to initiating the animal experiments, we carried out toxicology, biodistribution, and metabolism assessments of RK-33. Toxicology studies indicated that RK-33, at the dose used, was non-toxic in SCID mice. As shown in Fig5A, histopathology of the different tissues from control (DMSO) and RK-33-treated mice did not exhibit any discernable morphological changes. Biodistribution studies revealed that RK-33 was able to accumulate at therapeutic dose in various organs, thus enhancing the clinical relevance for the use of RK-33 as chemotherapeutic agent (Fig5B). Moreover, NADPH-independent and NADPH-dependent metabolism was observed when RK-33 was incubated with human liver and mouse microsomes (Fig5C). Subsequent chromatography analysis identified three potential metabolites (Fig5D). In addition, liver and kidney function tests, as well as the blood and lipid profiles, were not altered between the control and RK-33-treated groups (Table2).

Bottom Line: We designed a first-in-class small molecule inhibitor, RK-33, which binds to DDX3 and abrogates its activity.Mechanistically, loss of DDX3 function either by shRNA or by RK-33 impaired Wnt signaling through disruption of the DDX3-β-catenin axis and inhibited non-homologous end joining-the major DNA repair pathway in mammalian somatic cells.Overall, inhibition of DDX3 by RK-33 promotes tumor regression, thus providing a compelling argument to develop DDX3 inhibitors for lung cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus