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A consistent, quantifiable, and graded rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury model.

Wen J, Sun D, Tan J, Young W - J. Neurotrauma (2015)

Bottom Line: The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71 mm and 5.01 mm columns in the spinal cord.Dropping a 10-g weight from 25 mm or 50 mm caused 1.5 mm or 3.75 mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss.Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25 mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25 mm contusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1 Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey , Piscataway, New Jersey.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to develop a rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury (SCI) model that causes consistent motoneuronal loss and behavior deficits. Most SCI models focus on the thoracic or cervical spinal cord. Lumbosacral SCI accounts for about one third of human SCI but no standardized lumbosacral model is available for evaluating therapies. Twenty-six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: sham (n=9), 25 mm (n=8), and 50 mm (n=9). Sham rats had laminectomy only, while 25 mm and 50 mm rats were injured by dropping a 10 g rod from a height of 25 mm or 50 mm, respectively, onto the L4-5 spinal cord at the T13/L1 vertebral junction. We measured footprint length (FL), toe spreading (TS), intermediate toe spreading (ITS), and sciatic function index (SFI) from walking footprints, and static toe spreading (STS), static intermediate toe spreading (SITS), and static sciatic index (SSI) from standing footprints. At six weeks, we assessed neuronal and white matter loss, quantified axons, diameter, and myelin thickness in the peroneal and tibial nerves, and measured cross-sectional areas of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71 mm and 5.01 mm columns in the spinal cord. Dropping a 10-g weight from 25 mm or 50 mm caused 1.5 mm or 3.75 mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss. Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25 mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25 mm contusions. This model of lumbosacral SCI produces consistent and graded loss of white matter, motoneuronal loss, peripheral nerve axonal changes, and anterior tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles atrophy in rats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histologic changes of muscles. (A–C) show exemplary images of hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained gastrocnemius (GA) muscles in the Sham (A), 25 mm (B), and 50 mm (C) groups at six weeks after surgery. Scale bar (A–C), 100 μm. (D) Mean muscle fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA) and GA muscle in the Sham (n=3), 25 mm (n=4), and 50 mm (n=4) groups. The error bars indicate standard deviation. Mean muscle fiber CSA in the 25 mm and 50 mm groups were significantly smaller than in the Sham group and from each other. * indicates p<0.05 versus the Sham group; # indicates p<0.05 versus 25 mm group.
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f8: Histologic changes of muscles. (A–C) show exemplary images of hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained gastrocnemius (GA) muscles in the Sham (A), 25 mm (B), and 50 mm (C) groups at six weeks after surgery. Scale bar (A–C), 100 μm. (D) Mean muscle fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA) and GA muscle in the Sham (n=3), 25 mm (n=4), and 50 mm (n=4) groups. The error bars indicate standard deviation. Mean muscle fiber CSA in the 25 mm and 50 mm groups were significantly smaller than in the Sham group and from each other. * indicates p<0.05 versus the Sham group; # indicates p<0.05 versus 25 mm group.

Mentions: Figure 8 shows the histologic changes of GA muscle in the three groups. Injury clearly changed the appearance of the muscle. In the Sham group, the muscle fibers were large and pinkish with eccentric nuclei and CSA of 1300–1500 μm2. Muscle fiber CSA's in the GA muscle were slightly bigger than in the TA muscle. Injury remarkably reduced the CSA of the muscle fibers. After 25 mm contusion of the spinal cord, hematoxylin and eosin-stained muscles fibers were smaller and deeper purple, with large trabeculae separating bundles of shrunken muscle fibers. After 50 mm contusions of the spinal cord, the muscle fibers were even smaller and more condensed.


A consistent, quantifiable, and graded rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury model.

Wen J, Sun D, Tan J, Young W - J. Neurotrauma (2015)

Histologic changes of muscles. (A–C) show exemplary images of hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained gastrocnemius (GA) muscles in the Sham (A), 25 mm (B), and 50 mm (C) groups at six weeks after surgery. Scale bar (A–C), 100 μm. (D) Mean muscle fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA) and GA muscle in the Sham (n=3), 25 mm (n=4), and 50 mm (n=4) groups. The error bars indicate standard deviation. Mean muscle fiber CSA in the 25 mm and 50 mm groups were significantly smaller than in the Sham group and from each other. * indicates p<0.05 versus the Sham group; # indicates p<0.05 versus 25 mm group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492780&req=5

f8: Histologic changes of muscles. (A–C) show exemplary images of hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained gastrocnemius (GA) muscles in the Sham (A), 25 mm (B), and 50 mm (C) groups at six weeks after surgery. Scale bar (A–C), 100 μm. (D) Mean muscle fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA) and GA muscle in the Sham (n=3), 25 mm (n=4), and 50 mm (n=4) groups. The error bars indicate standard deviation. Mean muscle fiber CSA in the 25 mm and 50 mm groups were significantly smaller than in the Sham group and from each other. * indicates p<0.05 versus the Sham group; # indicates p<0.05 versus 25 mm group.
Mentions: Figure 8 shows the histologic changes of GA muscle in the three groups. Injury clearly changed the appearance of the muscle. In the Sham group, the muscle fibers were large and pinkish with eccentric nuclei and CSA of 1300–1500 μm2. Muscle fiber CSA's in the GA muscle were slightly bigger than in the TA muscle. Injury remarkably reduced the CSA of the muscle fibers. After 25 mm contusion of the spinal cord, hematoxylin and eosin-stained muscles fibers were smaller and deeper purple, with large trabeculae separating bundles of shrunken muscle fibers. After 50 mm contusions of the spinal cord, the muscle fibers were even smaller and more condensed.

Bottom Line: The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71 mm and 5.01 mm columns in the spinal cord.Dropping a 10-g weight from 25 mm or 50 mm caused 1.5 mm or 3.75 mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss.Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25 mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25 mm contusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1 Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey , Piscataway, New Jersey.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to develop a rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury (SCI) model that causes consistent motoneuronal loss and behavior deficits. Most SCI models focus on the thoracic or cervical spinal cord. Lumbosacral SCI accounts for about one third of human SCI but no standardized lumbosacral model is available for evaluating therapies. Twenty-six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: sham (n=9), 25 mm (n=8), and 50 mm (n=9). Sham rats had laminectomy only, while 25 mm and 50 mm rats were injured by dropping a 10 g rod from a height of 25 mm or 50 mm, respectively, onto the L4-5 spinal cord at the T13/L1 vertebral junction. We measured footprint length (FL), toe spreading (TS), intermediate toe spreading (ITS), and sciatic function index (SFI) from walking footprints, and static toe spreading (STS), static intermediate toe spreading (SITS), and static sciatic index (SSI) from standing footprints. At six weeks, we assessed neuronal and white matter loss, quantified axons, diameter, and myelin thickness in the peroneal and tibial nerves, and measured cross-sectional areas of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71 mm and 5.01 mm columns in the spinal cord. Dropping a 10-g weight from 25 mm or 50 mm caused 1.5 mm or 3.75 mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss. Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25 mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25 mm contusions. This model of lumbosacral SCI produces consistent and graded loss of white matter, motoneuronal loss, peripheral nerve axonal changes, and anterior tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles atrophy in rats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus