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A consistent, quantifiable, and graded rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury model.

Wen J, Sun D, Tan J, Young W - J. Neurotrauma (2015)

Bottom Line: The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71 mm and 5.01 mm columns in the spinal cord.Dropping a 10-g weight from 25 mm or 50 mm caused 1.5 mm or 3.75 mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss.Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25 mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25 mm contusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1 Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey , Piscataway, New Jersey.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to develop a rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury (SCI) model that causes consistent motoneuronal loss and behavior deficits. Most SCI models focus on the thoracic or cervical spinal cord. Lumbosacral SCI accounts for about one third of human SCI but no standardized lumbosacral model is available for evaluating therapies. Twenty-six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: sham (n=9), 25 mm (n=8), and 50 mm (n=9). Sham rats had laminectomy only, while 25 mm and 50 mm rats were injured by dropping a 10 g rod from a height of 25 mm or 50 mm, respectively, onto the L4-5 spinal cord at the T13/L1 vertebral junction. We measured footprint length (FL), toe spreading (TS), intermediate toe spreading (ITS), and sciatic function index (SFI) from walking footprints, and static toe spreading (STS), static intermediate toe spreading (SITS), and static sciatic index (SSI) from standing footprints. At six weeks, we assessed neuronal and white matter loss, quantified axons, diameter, and myelin thickness in the peroneal and tibial nerves, and measured cross-sectional areas of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71 mm and 5.01 mm columns in the spinal cord. Dropping a 10-g weight from 25 mm or 50 mm caused 1.5 mm or 3.75 mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss. Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25 mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25 mm contusions. This model of lumbosacral SCI produces consistent and graded loss of white matter, motoneuronal loss, peripheral nerve axonal changes, and anterior tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles atrophy in rats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Static foot positions and analysis. (A–C) Images of typical foot positions at two weeks after injury in the Sham, 25 mm, and 50 mm groups, respectively. (D) and (E) show the declines in mean static toe spreading (STS) and static intermediate toe spreading (SITS) in the three injury groups. (F) shows the declines of Static Sciatic Index scores in the three injury groups. The error bars indicate standard deviation. Animal numbers are the same as in Figure 2. All changes of foot positioning scores were statistically different among the three injury groups after the third week. * indicates significant difference compared with the Sham group. # indicates significant difference between the 25 mm and 50 mm groups.
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f3: Static foot positions and analysis. (A–C) Images of typical foot positions at two weeks after injury in the Sham, 25 mm, and 50 mm groups, respectively. (D) and (E) show the declines in mean static toe spreading (STS) and static intermediate toe spreading (SITS) in the three injury groups. (F) shows the declines of Static Sciatic Index scores in the three injury groups. The error bars indicate standard deviation. Animal numbers are the same as in Figure 2. All changes of foot positioning scores were statistically different among the three injury groups after the third week. * indicates significant difference compared with the Sham group. # indicates significant difference between the 25 mm and 50 mm groups.

Mentions: We analyzed standing or static footprints of the rats by photographing the feet of the rats standing on a transparent acrylic platform. Normally, rats spread their toes when they stand (Fig. 3A) so that the distances between the first and last toes (static toe spread or STS) are ∼20 mm and the distances between the second and fourth toes (static intermediate toe spread or SITS) are ∼12 mm (Fig. 3A).


A consistent, quantifiable, and graded rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury model.

Wen J, Sun D, Tan J, Young W - J. Neurotrauma (2015)

Static foot positions and analysis. (A–C) Images of typical foot positions at two weeks after injury in the Sham, 25 mm, and 50 mm groups, respectively. (D) and (E) show the declines in mean static toe spreading (STS) and static intermediate toe spreading (SITS) in the three injury groups. (F) shows the declines of Static Sciatic Index scores in the three injury groups. The error bars indicate standard deviation. Animal numbers are the same as in Figure 2. All changes of foot positioning scores were statistically different among the three injury groups after the third week. * indicates significant difference compared with the Sham group. # indicates significant difference between the 25 mm and 50 mm groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492780&req=5

f3: Static foot positions and analysis. (A–C) Images of typical foot positions at two weeks after injury in the Sham, 25 mm, and 50 mm groups, respectively. (D) and (E) show the declines in mean static toe spreading (STS) and static intermediate toe spreading (SITS) in the three injury groups. (F) shows the declines of Static Sciatic Index scores in the three injury groups. The error bars indicate standard deviation. Animal numbers are the same as in Figure 2. All changes of foot positioning scores were statistically different among the three injury groups after the third week. * indicates significant difference compared with the Sham group. # indicates significant difference between the 25 mm and 50 mm groups.
Mentions: We analyzed standing or static footprints of the rats by photographing the feet of the rats standing on a transparent acrylic platform. Normally, rats spread their toes when they stand (Fig. 3A) so that the distances between the first and last toes (static toe spread or STS) are ∼20 mm and the distances between the second and fourth toes (static intermediate toe spread or SITS) are ∼12 mm (Fig. 3A).

Bottom Line: The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71 mm and 5.01 mm columns in the spinal cord.Dropping a 10-g weight from 25 mm or 50 mm caused 1.5 mm or 3.75 mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss.Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25 mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25 mm contusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1 Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey , Piscataway, New Jersey.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to develop a rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury (SCI) model that causes consistent motoneuronal loss and behavior deficits. Most SCI models focus on the thoracic or cervical spinal cord. Lumbosacral SCI accounts for about one third of human SCI but no standardized lumbosacral model is available for evaluating therapies. Twenty-six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: sham (n=9), 25 mm (n=8), and 50 mm (n=9). Sham rats had laminectomy only, while 25 mm and 50 mm rats were injured by dropping a 10 g rod from a height of 25 mm or 50 mm, respectively, onto the L4-5 spinal cord at the T13/L1 vertebral junction. We measured footprint length (FL), toe spreading (TS), intermediate toe spreading (ITS), and sciatic function index (SFI) from walking footprints, and static toe spreading (STS), static intermediate toe spreading (SITS), and static sciatic index (SSI) from standing footprints. At six weeks, we assessed neuronal and white matter loss, quantified axons, diameter, and myelin thickness in the peroneal and tibial nerves, and measured cross-sectional areas of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71 mm and 5.01 mm columns in the spinal cord. Dropping a 10-g weight from 25 mm or 50 mm caused 1.5 mm or 3.75 mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss. Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25 mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25 mm contusions. This model of lumbosacral SCI produces consistent and graded loss of white matter, motoneuronal loss, peripheral nerve axonal changes, and anterior tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles atrophy in rats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus