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Long-Duration Spaceflight Increases Depth Ambiguity of Reversible Perspective Figures.

Clément G, Allaway HC, Demel M, Golemis A, Kindrat AN, Melinyshyn AN, Merali T, Thirsk R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect.However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight.These results indicate that the perception of "illusory" depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Bron, France.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate depth perception in astronauts during and after spaceflight by studying their sensitivity to reversible perspective figures in which two-dimensional images could elicit two possible depth representations. Other ambiguous figures that did not give rise to a perception of illusory depth were used as controls. Six astronauts and 14 subjects were tested in the laboratory during three sessions for evaluating the variability of their responses in normal gravity. The six astronauts were then tested during four sessions while on board the International Space Station for 5-6 months. They were finally tested immediately after return to Earth and up to one week later. The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect. However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight. On Earth, when watching depth-ambiguous perspective figures, all subjects reported seeing one three-dimensional interpretation more often than the other, i.e. a ratio of about 70-30%. In weightlessness this asymmetry gradually disappeared and after 3 months in orbit both interpretations were seen for the same duration. These results indicate that the perception of "illusory" depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight. This increased depth ambiguity is attributed to the lack of the gravitational reference and the eye-ground elevation for interpreting perspective depth cues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Silhouettes.These silhouettes can represent the profile of two different persons: a man’s face with a big nose or old woman begging with her hand extended (left); a Spartan soldier head and helmet or a golfer swinging (right).
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pone.0132317.g002: Silhouettes.These silhouettes can represent the profile of two different persons: a man’s face with a big nose or old woman begging with her hand extended (left); a Spartan soldier head and helmet or a golfer swinging (right).

Mentions: The figures that induced anthropomorphic ambiguity were black or white silhouettes that elicited the reversibility of the meaningful content of what was seen: a man’s face or an old woman begging with her arm extended (based on [15]), a Spartan’s head with his helmet or a golfer swinging [16] (Fig 2). These figures are sometimes referred to as eliciting a “figure and ground effect” [17]. Note that only an anthopomorphic profile was seen in each of these figures, there was no depth information. These particular figures were also chosen because of the equal probability of spontaneous appearance of each of the two embodied anthropomorphic profiles upon first exposure [18].


Long-Duration Spaceflight Increases Depth Ambiguity of Reversible Perspective Figures.

Clément G, Allaway HC, Demel M, Golemis A, Kindrat AN, Melinyshyn AN, Merali T, Thirsk R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Silhouettes.These silhouettes can represent the profile of two different persons: a man’s face with a big nose or old woman begging with her hand extended (left); a Spartan soldier head and helmet or a golfer swinging (right).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492703&req=5

pone.0132317.g002: Silhouettes.These silhouettes can represent the profile of two different persons: a man’s face with a big nose or old woman begging with her hand extended (left); a Spartan soldier head and helmet or a golfer swinging (right).
Mentions: The figures that induced anthropomorphic ambiguity were black or white silhouettes that elicited the reversibility of the meaningful content of what was seen: a man’s face or an old woman begging with her arm extended (based on [15]), a Spartan’s head with his helmet or a golfer swinging [16] (Fig 2). These figures are sometimes referred to as eliciting a “figure and ground effect” [17]. Note that only an anthopomorphic profile was seen in each of these figures, there was no depth information. These particular figures were also chosen because of the equal probability of spontaneous appearance of each of the two embodied anthropomorphic profiles upon first exposure [18].

Bottom Line: The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect.However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight.These results indicate that the perception of "illusory" depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Bron, France.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate depth perception in astronauts during and after spaceflight by studying their sensitivity to reversible perspective figures in which two-dimensional images could elicit two possible depth representations. Other ambiguous figures that did not give rise to a perception of illusory depth were used as controls. Six astronauts and 14 subjects were tested in the laboratory during three sessions for evaluating the variability of their responses in normal gravity. The six astronauts were then tested during four sessions while on board the International Space Station for 5-6 months. They were finally tested immediately after return to Earth and up to one week later. The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect. However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight. On Earth, when watching depth-ambiguous perspective figures, all subjects reported seeing one three-dimensional interpretation more often than the other, i.e. a ratio of about 70-30%. In weightlessness this asymmetry gradually disappeared and after 3 months in orbit both interpretations were seen for the same duration. These results indicate that the perception of "illusory" depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight. This increased depth ambiguity is attributed to the lack of the gravitational reference and the eye-ground elevation for interpreting perspective depth cues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus