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Long-Duration Spaceflight Increases Depth Ambiguity of Reversible Perspective Figures.

Clément G, Allaway HC, Demel M, Golemis A, Kindrat AN, Melinyshyn AN, Merali T, Thirsk R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect.However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight.These results indicate that the perception of "illusory" depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Bron, France.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate depth perception in astronauts during and after spaceflight by studying their sensitivity to reversible perspective figures in which two-dimensional images could elicit two possible depth representations. Other ambiguous figures that did not give rise to a perception of illusory depth were used as controls. Six astronauts and 14 subjects were tested in the laboratory during three sessions for evaluating the variability of their responses in normal gravity. The six astronauts were then tested during four sessions while on board the International Space Station for 5-6 months. They were finally tested immediately after return to Earth and up to one week later. The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect. However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight. On Earth, when watching depth-ambiguous perspective figures, all subjects reported seeing one three-dimensional interpretation more often than the other, i.e. a ratio of about 70-30%. In weightlessness this asymmetry gradually disappeared and after 3 months in orbit both interpretations were seen for the same duration. These results indicate that the perception of "illusory" depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight. This increased depth ambiguity is attributed to the lack of the gravitational reference and the eye-ground elevation for interpreting perspective depth cues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reversible perspective figures used for testing depth ambiguity.Prior to the experiment, the subjects were informed about the two possible depth interpretations as shown in the inserts. The filled-in area(s) of the object appear(s) the closest to the observer. The inserts were not displayed during the actual tests. The percepts illustrated by the lower inserts were generally experienced first and the most often in normal gravity.
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pone.0132317.g001: Reversible perspective figures used for testing depth ambiguity.Prior to the experiment, the subjects were informed about the two possible depth interpretations as shown in the inserts. The filled-in area(s) of the object appear(s) the closest to the observer. The inserts were not displayed during the actual tests. The percepts illustrated by the lower inserts were generally experienced first and the most often in normal gravity.

Mentions: The objective of this study was to further investigate if the perception of depth was altered in astronauts during and immediately after spaceflight by using reversible perspective figures known to generate ambiguous illusions of depth. Perceiving depth in these figures is a form of illusion because the images are actually two-dimensional. The best known of these ambiguous figures is the Necker cube [5] that can lead to two different, mutually exclusive interpretations, i.e. a cube staying on a surface and seen from above, or a cube suspended from the ceiling and seen from underneath (Fig 1A).


Long-Duration Spaceflight Increases Depth Ambiguity of Reversible Perspective Figures.

Clément G, Allaway HC, Demel M, Golemis A, Kindrat AN, Melinyshyn AN, Merali T, Thirsk R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Reversible perspective figures used for testing depth ambiguity.Prior to the experiment, the subjects were informed about the two possible depth interpretations as shown in the inserts. The filled-in area(s) of the object appear(s) the closest to the observer. The inserts were not displayed during the actual tests. The percepts illustrated by the lower inserts were generally experienced first and the most often in normal gravity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492703&req=5

pone.0132317.g001: Reversible perspective figures used for testing depth ambiguity.Prior to the experiment, the subjects were informed about the two possible depth interpretations as shown in the inserts. The filled-in area(s) of the object appear(s) the closest to the observer. The inserts were not displayed during the actual tests. The percepts illustrated by the lower inserts were generally experienced first and the most often in normal gravity.
Mentions: The objective of this study was to further investigate if the perception of depth was altered in astronauts during and immediately after spaceflight by using reversible perspective figures known to generate ambiguous illusions of depth. Perceiving depth in these figures is a form of illusion because the images are actually two-dimensional. The best known of these ambiguous figures is the Necker cube [5] that can lead to two different, mutually exclusive interpretations, i.e. a cube staying on a surface and seen from above, or a cube suspended from the ceiling and seen from underneath (Fig 1A).

Bottom Line: The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect.However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight.These results indicate that the perception of "illusory" depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Bron, France.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate depth perception in astronauts during and after spaceflight by studying their sensitivity to reversible perspective figures in which two-dimensional images could elicit two possible depth representations. Other ambiguous figures that did not give rise to a perception of illusory depth were used as controls. Six astronauts and 14 subjects were tested in the laboratory during three sessions for evaluating the variability of their responses in normal gravity. The six astronauts were then tested during four sessions while on board the International Space Station for 5-6 months. They were finally tested immediately after return to Earth and up to one week later. The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect. However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight. On Earth, when watching depth-ambiguous perspective figures, all subjects reported seeing one three-dimensional interpretation more often than the other, i.e. a ratio of about 70-30%. In weightlessness this asymmetry gradually disappeared and after 3 months in orbit both interpretations were seen for the same duration. These results indicate that the perception of "illusory" depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight. This increased depth ambiguity is attributed to the lack of the gravitational reference and the eye-ground elevation for interpreting perspective depth cues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus