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Daily Temperature Fluctuations Alter Interactions between Closely Related Species of Marine Nematodes.

De Meester N, Dos Santos GA, Rigaux A, Valdes Y, Derycke S, Moens T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results showed that fluctuating temperature had minor or no effects on the population fitness of the three species in monocultures.Temperature regime did have a substantial effect on the interactions between the species.In addition, the strength of the interspecific interactions changed depending on the temperature regime in the three-species treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Biology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium; Center for Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
In addition to an increase in mean temperature, climate change models predict decreasing amplitudes of daily temperature fluctuations. In temperate regions, where daily and seasonal fluctuations are prominent, such decreases in daily temperature fluctuations can have a pronounced effect on the fitness of species and on the outcome of species interactions. In this study, the effect of a temperature regime with daily fluctuations versus a constant temperature on the fitness and interspecific interactions of three cryptic species of the marine nematode species complex of Litoditis marina (Pm I, Pm III and Pm IV) were investigated. In a lab experiment, different combinations of species (monospecific treatment: Pm I and Pm IV and Pm III alone; two-species treatment: Pm I + Pm IV; three-species treatment: Pm I + Pm IV + Pm III) were subjected to two different temperature regimes: one constant and one fluctuating temperature. Our results showed that fluctuating temperature had minor or no effects on the population fitness of the three species in monocultures. In contrast, interspecific interactions clearly influenced the fitness of all three species, both positively and negatively. Temperature regime did have a substantial effect on the interactions between the species. In the two-species treatment, temperature regime altered the interaction from a sort of mutualism to commensalism. In addition, the strength of the interspecific interactions changed depending on the temperature regime in the three-species treatment. This experiment confirms that interactions between the species can change depending on the abiotic environment; these results show that it is important to incorporate the effect of fluctuations on interspecific interactions to predict the effect of climate change on biodiversity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Time-averaged number of nematodes (± SE) of Litoditis marina species (adults and juveniles) in the different interspecific interaction treatments (three species: T, two species: D and one species: M) and different temperature treatments (F and C) for (a) Pm I, (b) Pm IV and (c) Pm III.
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pone.0131625.g001: Time-averaged number of nematodes (± SE) of Litoditis marina species (adults and juveniles) in the different interspecific interaction treatments (three species: T, two species: D and one species: M) and different temperature treatments (F and C) for (a) Pm I, (b) Pm IV and (c) Pm III.

Mentions: Temperature regime had no effect on the juvenile or adult abundances of Pm I (Fig 1A). However, the abundance of Pm I adults was influenced by interspecific interactions and time (Table 1). Lower abundances of adults and juveniles were found when all three species were present (treatment T) compared with the two other treatments (all p< 0.03). No significant interaction terms were found (Table 1).


Daily Temperature Fluctuations Alter Interactions between Closely Related Species of Marine Nematodes.

De Meester N, Dos Santos GA, Rigaux A, Valdes Y, Derycke S, Moens T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Time-averaged number of nematodes (± SE) of Litoditis marina species (adults and juveniles) in the different interspecific interaction treatments (three species: T, two species: D and one species: M) and different temperature treatments (F and C) for (a) Pm I, (b) Pm IV and (c) Pm III.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492701&req=5

pone.0131625.g001: Time-averaged number of nematodes (± SE) of Litoditis marina species (adults and juveniles) in the different interspecific interaction treatments (three species: T, two species: D and one species: M) and different temperature treatments (F and C) for (a) Pm I, (b) Pm IV and (c) Pm III.
Mentions: Temperature regime had no effect on the juvenile or adult abundances of Pm I (Fig 1A). However, the abundance of Pm I adults was influenced by interspecific interactions and time (Table 1). Lower abundances of adults and juveniles were found when all three species were present (treatment T) compared with the two other treatments (all p< 0.03). No significant interaction terms were found (Table 1).

Bottom Line: Our results showed that fluctuating temperature had minor or no effects on the population fitness of the three species in monocultures.Temperature regime did have a substantial effect on the interactions between the species.In addition, the strength of the interspecific interactions changed depending on the temperature regime in the three-species treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Biology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium; Center for Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
In addition to an increase in mean temperature, climate change models predict decreasing amplitudes of daily temperature fluctuations. In temperate regions, where daily and seasonal fluctuations are prominent, such decreases in daily temperature fluctuations can have a pronounced effect on the fitness of species and on the outcome of species interactions. In this study, the effect of a temperature regime with daily fluctuations versus a constant temperature on the fitness and interspecific interactions of three cryptic species of the marine nematode species complex of Litoditis marina (Pm I, Pm III and Pm IV) were investigated. In a lab experiment, different combinations of species (monospecific treatment: Pm I and Pm IV and Pm III alone; two-species treatment: Pm I + Pm IV; three-species treatment: Pm I + Pm IV + Pm III) were subjected to two different temperature regimes: one constant and one fluctuating temperature. Our results showed that fluctuating temperature had minor or no effects on the population fitness of the three species in monocultures. In contrast, interspecific interactions clearly influenced the fitness of all three species, both positively and negatively. Temperature regime did have a substantial effect on the interactions between the species. In the two-species treatment, temperature regime altered the interaction from a sort of mutualism to commensalism. In addition, the strength of the interspecific interactions changed depending on the temperature regime in the three-species treatment. This experiment confirms that interactions between the species can change depending on the abiotic environment; these results show that it is important to incorporate the effect of fluctuations on interspecific interactions to predict the effect of climate change on biodiversity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus