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Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

Negri I, Mavris C, Di Prisco G, Caprio E, Pellecchia M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter.The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived.With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Koiné-Environmental Consulting S.n.c., Parma, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Round-shaped anthropogenic particles gathered on the honey bee wings and head surface.(A) BSE and SE images of a subspherical iron-rich particle. Note its scaly surface. Bar = 2 μm. (B) BSE image of a smooth sphere mainly constituted of iron. Several fine and ultra-fine particles of baryte (brighter fragments) are scattered all around. Bar = 10 μm. (C) SE image of rounded particle mainly constituted of iron, partially embedded into organic matrix. Bar = 2 μm. (D) BSE image of a rounded Si-Al particle, completely embedded in organic matrix (only C and O detected). Bar = 1 μm.
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pone.0132491.g011: Round-shaped anthropogenic particles gathered on the honey bee wings and head surface.(A) BSE and SE images of a subspherical iron-rich particle. Note its scaly surface. Bar = 2 μm. (B) BSE image of a smooth sphere mainly constituted of iron. Several fine and ultra-fine particles of baryte (brighter fragments) are scattered all around. Bar = 10 μm. (C) SE image of rounded particle mainly constituted of iron, partially embedded into organic matrix. Bar = 2 μm. (D) BSE image of a rounded Si-Al particle, completely embedded in organic matrix (only C and O detected). Bar = 1 μm.

Mentions: The honey bees also collected anthropogenic particles, which generally displayed a subspherical morphology, sometimes with a scaly surface, ranging from about 500 nm up to 10 μm in diameter (Figs 9 and 11). Characterization with EDX defined their chemistry as either Fe-rich particles or alumino-silicate (Fig 11).


Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

Negri I, Mavris C, Di Prisco G, Caprio E, Pellecchia M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Round-shaped anthropogenic particles gathered on the honey bee wings and head surface.(A) BSE and SE images of a subspherical iron-rich particle. Note its scaly surface. Bar = 2 μm. (B) BSE image of a smooth sphere mainly constituted of iron. Several fine and ultra-fine particles of baryte (brighter fragments) are scattered all around. Bar = 10 μm. (C) SE image of rounded particle mainly constituted of iron, partially embedded into organic matrix. Bar = 2 μm. (D) BSE image of a rounded Si-Al particle, completely embedded in organic matrix (only C and O detected). Bar = 1 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492680&req=5

pone.0132491.g011: Round-shaped anthropogenic particles gathered on the honey bee wings and head surface.(A) BSE and SE images of a subspherical iron-rich particle. Note its scaly surface. Bar = 2 μm. (B) BSE image of a smooth sphere mainly constituted of iron. Several fine and ultra-fine particles of baryte (brighter fragments) are scattered all around. Bar = 10 μm. (C) SE image of rounded particle mainly constituted of iron, partially embedded into organic matrix. Bar = 2 μm. (D) BSE image of a rounded Si-Al particle, completely embedded in organic matrix (only C and O detected). Bar = 1 μm.
Mentions: The honey bees also collected anthropogenic particles, which generally displayed a subspherical morphology, sometimes with a scaly surface, ranging from about 500 nm up to 10 μm in diameter (Figs 9 and 11). Characterization with EDX defined their chemistry as either Fe-rich particles or alumino-silicate (Fig 11).

Bottom Line: In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter.The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived.With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Koiné-Environmental Consulting S.n.c., Parma, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus