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Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia.

Hraiech S, Papazian L, Rolain JM, Bregeon F - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential.Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia.Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IHU Méditerranée infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France ; Réanimation - Détresses Respiratoires et infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasionally life-threatening infections. The physiopathology of pneumonia has been extensively studied, providing information for the development of new treatments for this condition. In addition to in vitro research, animal models have been largely used in the field of pneumonia. Several models have been described and have provided a better understanding of pneumonia under different settings and with various pathogens. However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential. Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia. Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pathophysiological mechanisms explaining the severity of a Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia following an influenza virus lung infection according to mice models.Notes: When influenza pneumonia is followed by a streptococcal superinfection, the severity resulting from the synergy of both microorganisms can be observed at different levels. In the lungs, it is associated with edema, inflammation, and impaired immune response. From a microbiological point of view, the bacterial clearance is decreased and lung abscesses are more frequently described. extra-pulmonary bacterial dissemination is also more favored with an increased occurrence of bacteremia.Abbreviation: A1AT, alpha1 antitrypsine; LYZ, lysozyme; NE, neutrophil elastase; LT, T lymphocytes.
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f5-dddt-9-3279: Pathophysiological mechanisms explaining the severity of a Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia following an influenza virus lung infection according to mice models.Notes: When influenza pneumonia is followed by a streptococcal superinfection, the severity resulting from the synergy of both microorganisms can be observed at different levels. In the lungs, it is associated with edema, inflammation, and impaired immune response. From a microbiological point of view, the bacterial clearance is decreased and lung abscesses are more frequently described. extra-pulmonary bacterial dissemination is also more favored with an increased occurrence of bacteremia.Abbreviation: A1AT, alpha1 antitrypsine; LYZ, lysozyme; NE, neutrophil elastase; LT, T lymphocytes.

Mentions: Animal models have provided numerous data and many insights in the field of viral and bacterial pneumonia: first, these data confirmed the pathogen synergism of co-infection; second, altogether, the results suggest that viral infection primes the host for bacterial pneumonia, making the subject prone to subsequently develop a more severe form of infection; and third, these data suggest that the role of the immune response is crucial, including an enhanced inflammatory response likely responsible for increased alveolar damage. In addition, global “immunosuppression” might favor the impaired clearance of microorganism from airways. Moreover, adhesion molecules have also been implicated in the severity of bacterial pneumonia (Figure 5).


Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia.

Hraiech S, Papazian L, Rolain JM, Bregeon F - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Pathophysiological mechanisms explaining the severity of a Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia following an influenza virus lung infection according to mice models.Notes: When influenza pneumonia is followed by a streptococcal superinfection, the severity resulting from the synergy of both microorganisms can be observed at different levels. In the lungs, it is associated with edema, inflammation, and impaired immune response. From a microbiological point of view, the bacterial clearance is decreased and lung abscesses are more frequently described. extra-pulmonary bacterial dissemination is also more favored with an increased occurrence of bacteremia.Abbreviation: A1AT, alpha1 antitrypsine; LYZ, lysozyme; NE, neutrophil elastase; LT, T lymphocytes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492661&req=5

f5-dddt-9-3279: Pathophysiological mechanisms explaining the severity of a Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia following an influenza virus lung infection according to mice models.Notes: When influenza pneumonia is followed by a streptococcal superinfection, the severity resulting from the synergy of both microorganisms can be observed at different levels. In the lungs, it is associated with edema, inflammation, and impaired immune response. From a microbiological point of view, the bacterial clearance is decreased and lung abscesses are more frequently described. extra-pulmonary bacterial dissemination is also more favored with an increased occurrence of bacteremia.Abbreviation: A1AT, alpha1 antitrypsine; LYZ, lysozyme; NE, neutrophil elastase; LT, T lymphocytes.
Mentions: Animal models have provided numerous data and many insights in the field of viral and bacterial pneumonia: first, these data confirmed the pathogen synergism of co-infection; second, altogether, the results suggest that viral infection primes the host for bacterial pneumonia, making the subject prone to subsequently develop a more severe form of infection; and third, these data suggest that the role of the immune response is crucial, including an enhanced inflammatory response likely responsible for increased alveolar damage. In addition, global “immunosuppression” might favor the impaired clearance of microorganism from airways. Moreover, adhesion molecules have also been implicated in the severity of bacterial pneumonia (Figure 5).

Bottom Line: However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential.Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia.Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IHU Méditerranée infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France ; Réanimation - Détresses Respiratoires et infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasionally life-threatening infections. The physiopathology of pneumonia has been extensively studied, providing information for the development of new treatments for this condition. In addition to in vitro research, animal models have been largely used in the field of pneumonia. Several models have been described and have provided a better understanding of pneumonia under different settings and with various pathogens. However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential. Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia. Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus