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Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia.

Hraiech S, Papazian L, Rolain JM, Bregeon F - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential.Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia.Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IHU Méditerranée infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France ; Réanimation - Détresses Respiratoires et infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasionally life-threatening infections. The physiopathology of pneumonia has been extensively studied, providing information for the development of new treatments for this condition. In addition to in vitro research, animal models have been largely used in the field of pneumonia. Several models have been described and have provided a better understanding of pneumonia under different settings and with various pathogens. However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential. Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia. Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Whole-body inhalation exposure system.Notes: The Glas-Col® aerosol exposure chamber system (Glas-Col, Terre Haute, IN, USA) is presented here. The bacterial suspension at a known concentration (A) is placed into a glass vial that is a venturi nebulizer (B), connected to a leak-proof gas flow system (C). Pumps generate compressed gas flow to disperse the suspension into a fine mist. Pumps’ flow rate is adjusted on manual flowmeters (D). Durations of the aerosolization and decontamination time are set via digital interface software displayed on a screen window (E). High-efficiency particulate arrestance filters, gas incinerators, and UV decontamination (F) processes are all included in a whole block. The system operates under negative pressure. Before aerosolization starts, animals are placed in a stainless steel basket (G).
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f2-dddt-9-3279: Whole-body inhalation exposure system.Notes: The Glas-Col® aerosol exposure chamber system (Glas-Col, Terre Haute, IN, USA) is presented here. The bacterial suspension at a known concentration (A) is placed into a glass vial that is a venturi nebulizer (B), connected to a leak-proof gas flow system (C). Pumps generate compressed gas flow to disperse the suspension into a fine mist. Pumps’ flow rate is adjusted on manual flowmeters (D). Durations of the aerosolization and decontamination time are set via digital interface software displayed on a screen window (E). High-efficiency particulate arrestance filters, gas incinerators, and UV decontamination (F) processes are all included in a whole block. The system operates under negative pressure. Before aerosolization starts, animals are placed in a stainless steel basket (G).

Mentions: Many lower respiratory tract infections are acquired through the inhalation of infectious aerosols, including tuberculosis, legionellosis, mycoplasma and chlamydia infections, fungal pneumonias, and respiratory viral infections. Airborne transmission can be mimicked through the exposure of mice to aerosolized microorganisms in whole-body (Figure 2) or nose-only chambers. The inhalation of aerosolized microorganisms results in symmetrical deposition throughout both lungs.23 The disadvantages of aerosol models of infection include the costly equipment that must be regularly maintained and tested and the potential exposure of laboratory personnel to airborne biohazards. The deposition of aerosolized organisms in the upper respiratory tract, on the eyes and pelt, and clearance to the alimentary tract might be a confounding factor in some infections. Furthermore, some respiratory pathogens, such as S. pneumoniae or several respiratory viruses, are particularly sensitive to desiccation and/or oxygen toxicity and survive poorly when aerosolized. Moreover, there is an inoculum upper limit achieved through inhalation, and higher dose infections can be achieved through bolus methods (nasal/intra-tracheal route).


Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia.

Hraiech S, Papazian L, Rolain JM, Bregeon F - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Whole-body inhalation exposure system.Notes: The Glas-Col® aerosol exposure chamber system (Glas-Col, Terre Haute, IN, USA) is presented here. The bacterial suspension at a known concentration (A) is placed into a glass vial that is a venturi nebulizer (B), connected to a leak-proof gas flow system (C). Pumps generate compressed gas flow to disperse the suspension into a fine mist. Pumps’ flow rate is adjusted on manual flowmeters (D). Durations of the aerosolization and decontamination time are set via digital interface software displayed on a screen window (E). High-efficiency particulate arrestance filters, gas incinerators, and UV decontamination (F) processes are all included in a whole block. The system operates under negative pressure. Before aerosolization starts, animals are placed in a stainless steel basket (G).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492661&req=5

f2-dddt-9-3279: Whole-body inhalation exposure system.Notes: The Glas-Col® aerosol exposure chamber system (Glas-Col, Terre Haute, IN, USA) is presented here. The bacterial suspension at a known concentration (A) is placed into a glass vial that is a venturi nebulizer (B), connected to a leak-proof gas flow system (C). Pumps generate compressed gas flow to disperse the suspension into a fine mist. Pumps’ flow rate is adjusted on manual flowmeters (D). Durations of the aerosolization and decontamination time are set via digital interface software displayed on a screen window (E). High-efficiency particulate arrestance filters, gas incinerators, and UV decontamination (F) processes are all included in a whole block. The system operates under negative pressure. Before aerosolization starts, animals are placed in a stainless steel basket (G).
Mentions: Many lower respiratory tract infections are acquired through the inhalation of infectious aerosols, including tuberculosis, legionellosis, mycoplasma and chlamydia infections, fungal pneumonias, and respiratory viral infections. Airborne transmission can be mimicked through the exposure of mice to aerosolized microorganisms in whole-body (Figure 2) or nose-only chambers. The inhalation of aerosolized microorganisms results in symmetrical deposition throughout both lungs.23 The disadvantages of aerosol models of infection include the costly equipment that must be regularly maintained and tested and the potential exposure of laboratory personnel to airborne biohazards. The deposition of aerosolized organisms in the upper respiratory tract, on the eyes and pelt, and clearance to the alimentary tract might be a confounding factor in some infections. Furthermore, some respiratory pathogens, such as S. pneumoniae or several respiratory viruses, are particularly sensitive to desiccation and/or oxygen toxicity and survive poorly when aerosolized. Moreover, there is an inoculum upper limit achieved through inhalation, and higher dose infections can be achieved through bolus methods (nasal/intra-tracheal route).

Bottom Line: However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential.Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia.Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IHU Méditerranée infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France ; Réanimation - Détresses Respiratoires et infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasionally life-threatening infections. The physiopathology of pneumonia has been extensively studied, providing information for the development of new treatments for this condition. In addition to in vitro research, animal models have been largely used in the field of pneumonia. Several models have been described and have provided a better understanding of pneumonia under different settings and with various pathogens. However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential. Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia. Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus