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Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia.

Hraiech S, Papazian L, Rolain JM, Bregeon F - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential.Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia.Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IHU Méditerranée infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France ; Réanimation - Détresses Respiratoires et infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasionally life-threatening infections. The physiopathology of pneumonia has been extensively studied, providing information for the development of new treatments for this condition. In addition to in vitro research, animal models have been largely used in the field of pneumonia. Several models have been described and have provided a better understanding of pneumonia under different settings and with various pathogens. However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential. Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia. Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Characteristics and targets of frequently used species in animal models of pneumonia.Notes: The main animal species used are presented. For each, the experimental advantages are mentioned in a panel followed by the list of the main topic for which these species are usually used.
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f1-dddt-9-3279: Characteristics and targets of frequently used species in animal models of pneumonia.Notes: The main animal species used are presented. For each, the experimental advantages are mentioned in a panel followed by the list of the main topic for which these species are usually used.

Mentions: In pneumonia models, mammalians are most often used because of the anatomical and physiological proximity of these animals with humans. As non-mammalian species, such as birds, are typically studied for veterinary or zoonotic purposes, these models will not be further discussed herein. Larger mammalian species, such as rabbits, dogs, pigs, baboons, etc, are typically preferred when extensive physiological cardiovascular monitoring and hemodynamic support are assessed (Figure 1). Specifically, non-human primates are the only animal species able to evaluate primate-specific infectious agents, such as HIV. Because of the feasibility of lung mechanics measurements, large animals are preferred in VAP models. Although baboons16 have been used, piglets are the currently and more frequently used models. In contrast, polymicrobial infections have primarily been assessed in rodents, particularly mice and rats. The small size and rapid reproductive rate of rodents are conducive to many of the practicalities of laboratory research. Inbred mice strains are typically used to study genetically identical cohorts, and these animals facilitate the use of genetic approaches to understand molecular mechanisms of a disease. Genetic engineering of mouse embryonic stem cells is currently available, and a wide variety of transgenic mice harboring loss-of-function, gain-of function, or reporter genes have been generated. For example, the engineering of cystic-fibrosis-like mouse models to study airway colonization or chronic pneumonia might be of particular interest even if one must keep in mind that mice models do not exactly reproduce human pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs.17,18 Because mice have become a mainstay of biomedical research, the development of new mouse studies benefits from the vast amount of existing literature regarding murine host defenses and immunological responses and the many relevant and readily available resources, such as recombinant mouse proteins or antibodies against mouse proteins.


Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia.

Hraiech S, Papazian L, Rolain JM, Bregeon F - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Characteristics and targets of frequently used species in animal models of pneumonia.Notes: The main animal species used are presented. For each, the experimental advantages are mentioned in a panel followed by the list of the main topic for which these species are usually used.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492661&req=5

f1-dddt-9-3279: Characteristics and targets of frequently used species in animal models of pneumonia.Notes: The main animal species used are presented. For each, the experimental advantages are mentioned in a panel followed by the list of the main topic for which these species are usually used.
Mentions: In pneumonia models, mammalians are most often used because of the anatomical and physiological proximity of these animals with humans. As non-mammalian species, such as birds, are typically studied for veterinary or zoonotic purposes, these models will not be further discussed herein. Larger mammalian species, such as rabbits, dogs, pigs, baboons, etc, are typically preferred when extensive physiological cardiovascular monitoring and hemodynamic support are assessed (Figure 1). Specifically, non-human primates are the only animal species able to evaluate primate-specific infectious agents, such as HIV. Because of the feasibility of lung mechanics measurements, large animals are preferred in VAP models. Although baboons16 have been used, piglets are the currently and more frequently used models. In contrast, polymicrobial infections have primarily been assessed in rodents, particularly mice and rats. The small size and rapid reproductive rate of rodents are conducive to many of the practicalities of laboratory research. Inbred mice strains are typically used to study genetically identical cohorts, and these animals facilitate the use of genetic approaches to understand molecular mechanisms of a disease. Genetic engineering of mouse embryonic stem cells is currently available, and a wide variety of transgenic mice harboring loss-of-function, gain-of function, or reporter genes have been generated. For example, the engineering of cystic-fibrosis-like mouse models to study airway colonization or chronic pneumonia might be of particular interest even if one must keep in mind that mice models do not exactly reproduce human pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs.17,18 Because mice have become a mainstay of biomedical research, the development of new mouse studies benefits from the vast amount of existing literature regarding murine host defenses and immunological responses and the many relevant and readily available resources, such as recombinant mouse proteins or antibodies against mouse proteins.

Bottom Line: However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential.Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia.Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IHU Méditerranée infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France ; Réanimation - Détresses Respiratoires et infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasionally life-threatening infections. The physiopathology of pneumonia has been extensively studied, providing information for the development of new treatments for this condition. In addition to in vitro research, animal models have been largely used in the field of pneumonia. Several models have been described and have provided a better understanding of pneumonia under different settings and with various pathogens. However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential. Although "two hits" animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia. Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus